In class notes for October 1, 2007

In class notes for October 1, 2007 - Introduction to...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Biological Sciences 110a In class notes for October 1, 2007 • The metabolism of glucose takes place in three stages. o 1 st step glucose is broken down into pyruvate. o In mitochondria it is completely oxidized, making high energy molecules. o Last stage, energy in NADH and other molecules are used to make ATP. • 1 st step o Takes place in the cytosol o This pathway is called glycolysis . o One molecule of glucose and two ADP molecules get involved with two phosphates and two NAD molecules. These react to make two pyruvate molecules and two molecules of NADH and two molecules of ATP. There are only 2, 3 carbon sugars. o Both of these have higher energy than glucose. o Metabolic pathways always have to run downhill (negative free energy) o The oxidation of the 3-carbon sugars reduce a lot of energy. o Glycolysis is in two stages. o See Karp Fig. 5-6 The first step of glycolysis • Glucose + 2ATP molecules 2 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + 2 → ATP • This reaction G<0 ∆ Int roduction to Biological Sciences 110a In class notes for October 1, 2007 • This is a coupled reaction. 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP The second step of glycolysis • 2 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate + 2NAD + + 4ADP + 2 phosphate 2 → pyruvate + 2 NADH + 4 ATP (and some water to balance the equation) • This reaction G<0 ∆ These steps have a big negative free energy change, this makes up for the ATP used at the beginning. This helps make ATP very quickly o Keep an eye on the use and making of NADPH, when the pathway is on and off, how the pathway fits in with other pathways....
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In class notes for October 1, 2007 - Introduction to...

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