In class notes for October 3, 2007

In class notes for October 3, 2007 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Biological Sciences 110a In class notes for October 3, 2007 Glycolysis produces pyruvate, NADH, and ATP Sometimes pyruvate and NADH cannont be oxidized (anaerobic metabolism) Anerboic metabolism o There are two solutions to the absence of oxygen In yeast and in some bacteria, pyruvate can be converted in two steps to ethanol Step 1: CO 2 is released Step 2: A redox step, a molecule of NADH is converted to NAD + This complete process (using steps 1-2) converts glucose to ethanol and ATP o This is called fermentation Where there is no net oxidation In muscles, during heavy exercise, pyruvate is converted to lactate In this process, which is only one step, NADH is oxidized to NAD + o There is no net oxidation or reduction This happens by a high concentration of glycolytic enzymes in the cytosol in the muscle cells. There is not enough oxygen in the cell to oxidize everything. Lactate is a dead end, nothing else can happen. However, the lactate diffuses slowly out of the muscle cells and is transported to the liver by the blood stream. In the liver, it can be converted to pyruvate then back to glucose by gluconeogenesis. Aerboic metabolism (the oxidation of pyruvate) o The pyruvate is moved to the mitochondrial matrix by the pryuvate/ H + symport o There is a protein gradient across the inner mitocholdrial membrane (high on inside, low on outside) o Symport pushes pyruvate into the matrix
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2009 for the course BSCI 110A taught by Professor Broadie/patton during the Fall '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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In class notes for October 3, 2007 - Introduction to...

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