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In class notes for September 10, 2007

In class notes for September 10, 2007 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Biological Sciences 110a In class notes for September 10, 2007 All chemical systems have to abide by law of thermodynamics o Energy is conserved (can’t be created or destroyed) o The entropy (disorder) of the universe (or any closed system) always increases Energy must go “down hill” ∆ G (free energy) = ∆ H (change in energy) – T ∆ S (energy available to do work) Free energy needs to be negative ∆ H ( positive if heat is gained) T ∆ S (positive if ordered) Free energy exchange is ∆ G= G products – G reactants ∆ G = ∆ G ° + 0.161 ln (products/reactants) o ∆ G is a fixed value for reaction o If reactions need to go downhill to be spontaneous, ∆G needs to be negative. o Consider a simple biochemical reaction: °< A reactants⇌B products ∆G 0 o Reactions will balance out at equilibrium A ⇌B forward rate K 1 [ ] A Rate reverse K 2 [B] At k 1 [A] = k 2 [B] = [ ][ ]= k1k2 B A Keq o If equilibrium constant is greater than 1, you have negative ∆ G o If equilibrium constant is less than 1, the standard free energy is positive (there’s going to be trouble going forward) °= - ∆G RT lnKeq = -0.616 lnKeq ° = - ∆G ' RTlnKeq' ° = - . ∆G ' 2 303RT logKeq' o If we know a little, we can predict more about it by equilibrium
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Introduction to Biological Sciences 110a In class notes for September 10, 2007 Metabolism is a collection of biological reactions.
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