Lecture 4 Chapter 40.1, 45.1-45.2 Book notes

Lecture 4 Chapter 40.1, 45.1-45.2 Book notes - Biology 110b...

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Biology 110b Chapter 40.4, 45.1-45.2 Book notes (Page 820) All animals must obtain oxygen, nourish themselves, excrete waste products, and move to survive. The form and function of animals are closely related. Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism. Physiology is the study of the functions an organism performs. Natural selection can fit structure to function by selecting, over many generations, what works best among the available variations in a population. An animal’s size and shape are referred to as it’s “body plan” or “design.”, and are fundamental aspects of form and function that significantly affect the way an animal interacts with its environment. (Page 823) Physical requirements constrain what natural selection can “invent” and physical laws limit the evolution of an organism’s form. A fusion form shape means that it is tapered on both ends. An animal’s size and shape have a direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings. Exchange with the environment occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium of cells diffuse and are transported across the cells’ plasma membrane. This organization only works if all the cells of the animal have access to a suitable aqueous environment. The animal’s body plan must reflect the need the animal has for a suitable aqueous environment. (Page 822) Most animals are more complex and made up of compact masses of cells; their outer surfaces are relatively small compared with their volumes. Extensively folded or branched internal surfaces facilitate the necessary exchanges with the environment in these animals. Complex body forms do have distinct benefits, they: a. Protect against predators b. Enable rapid movement c. Break down food to control the release of stored energy (Page 943) An animal hormone is a chemical signal that is secreted into the extracellular fluid, is carried by the circulatory system and communicates regulatory messages within the body.
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Lecture 4 Chapter 40.1, 45.1-45.2 Book notes - Biology 110b...

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