Lecture 7 Chapter 21 Book notes

Lecture 7 Chapter 21 Book notes - Biology 110b Chapter 21...

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Chapter 21 Book notes (Page 441) Embryology is the study of the stages of development leading from a fertilized egg to a fully formed organism. (Page 412) When the primary research goal is to understand broad biological principals, the organism chosen for study is called a model organism . (Page 413) Cell differentiation is the process by which cells become specialized in structure and function. The physical processes that give an organism its shape constitute morphogenesis . (Page 414) The development of animals and plants differ in two major ways: 1. In animals, but not in plants, movements of cells, and tissues are necessary to transform early embryo into the characteristic three-dimensional form of the organism. 2. In plants, but not in animals, morphogenesis and growth in overall size are not limited to embryonic and juvenile periods but occur throughout the life of the plant. The structures responsible for a plant’s continual growth and formation of new organs are apical meristems , perpetually embryonic regions in the tips of shoots and roots. (Page 415) Nearly all the cells of an organism have genomic equivalence , which means they all have the same genes. The characteristic of being totipotent occurs when mature cells can differentiate and then give rise to all the specialized cell types of the mature organism. Using one or more somatic cells from a multicellular organism to make another genetically identical individual is called cloning , and each new individual made in this way can be called a clone . (Page 416) Nuclear transplantation refers to removing the nucleus of an unfertilized egg cell or zygote and replacing it with the nucleus of a differentiated cell. Through experimentation, researchers have concluded that something in the nucleus does change as animal cell differentiate. The goal of producing new individuals is called reproductive cloning . (Page 417)
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Lecture 7 Chapter 21 Book notes - Biology 110b Chapter 21...

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