Lectures 2-3 Chapter 11 Book Notes (Pg. 201-215)

Lectures 2-3 Chapter 11 Book Notes (Pg. 201-215) - Biology...

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Biology 110B Chapter 11 Book Notes (Page 202) An example of cell communication is sex in yeast cells. Yeast cells identify their mate by chemical signaling. The two mating types are a and α. Cells who are the a mating type secrete the a factor and cells who are the α type secrete the α factor. The a factors bind to the receptor proteins of the α cell and the α factors bind to the receptor proteins of the a cells. The two mating factors cause the cells to grow towards each other and bring about other cellular changes. The cells fuse to form a new a/α cell that contains all the genes of the two original cells. Transduced means to change. Signal transduction pathway- The process by which a signal on a cell’s surface is converted into a specific cellular response. Local signaling Local regulators are messenger molecules that travel only short distances that influence cells in the vicinity. Growth factors are a class of local regulators. These are found in animals. They are compounds that stimulate nearby target cells to grow and multiply. Many cells can respond to growth factors of one cell. This is known as paracrine signaling. (Page 203) Synaptic signaling is a more specialized type of local signaling. This is when an electrical signal along a nerve cell triggers the secretion of a chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitter molecules. These diffuse across the synapse . The synapse is the space between the nerve cell and the target cell and is often another nerve cell. The neurotransmitter stimulates the target cell.
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Biology 110B Chapter 11 Book Notes Long-distance signaling Plants and animals both use hormones. Hormones are chemicals used for long distance signaling. In animals: Hormone signaling is also called endocrine signaling . Specialized cells release hormone molecules into vessels of the circulatory system. The circulatory system takes the hormones to the target cells in other parts of the body. In plants: Hormones are often called growth regulators. Sometimes hormones travel through vessels, but usually through other cells. They can also travel by diffusion through the air as a gas. The transmission of a signal through the nervous system can also be considered an example of long distance signaling. An electrical signal travels the length of a nerve cell. It is then converted back into an electrical signal. This is how nerve signals can travel along series of nerve cells. What happens when a cell encounters a signal? The signal must be recongized by a specific receptor molecule, and the information it carries must be changed into another form (transduced) inside the cell before the cell can respond. (Page 204)
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2009 for the course BSCI 110B taught by Professor Due during the Spring '08 term at Vanderbilt.

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Lectures 2-3 Chapter 11 Book Notes (Pg. 201-215) - Biology...

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