Final Review Questions for Stubbs half

Final Review Questions for Stubbs half - Final Review...

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Final Review Questions from Stubbs Half How are membranes used to store energy in cells? What is the name for energy stored in this way? Membranes store energy in the form of concentration gradients, which is a type of chemical potential. This is when the concentration of a certain molecule is built up on one side of the membrane, then when it is allowed to flow through the membrane, energy is released. Draw a phosphoglyceride. Choose specific components, and include complete molecular structures. Draw a sphingomyelin, including complete molecular structures. What is the difference between a cerebroside and a ganglioside? A cerebroside has a single simple sugar attached, where a ganglioside has an oligosaccharide, which is a string of simple sugars, attached. What types of lipids are glycolipids derived from in plants? in bacteria? in animals? In animals, glycolipids are derived from fats and oils. In plants and bacteria, they are derived from phosphoglycerides. Why do some lipids spontaneously form lipid bilayers? Lipids have a very hydrophillic head and very hydrophobic tail so they organize into bilayers to protect the hydrophobic tails. How can integral membrane proteins be removed from a membrane? Peripheral membrane proteins? Integral proteins can be removed by a detergent or organic solvent. Peripheral proteins can be removed from the membrane by an increased salt concentration, an acid, or a base. What are the two most common supersecondary structures (motifs) in integral membrane proteins? The alpha helical structure and the beta “TIM” barrels. What property of amino acid side chains allows us to predict the sequences of trans- membrane alpha helices? Hydrophobicity Name three types of lipid that are found covalently attached to proteins, anchoring the proteins to a membrane. Lipids that are attached by a hydrocarbon chain, a fatty acid anchor, and a glycolipid anchor. What component lipids affect the fluidity of membranes, and what effect do they have? The temperature of the environment surrounding the cell affects the fluidity. When the temperature is warm, the membrane is more fluid; when it is cold, the membrane is less fluid. Cholesterol also affects the membrane by decreasing fluidity and permeability. List three ways in which membranes are asymmetric, in the sense that one surface is different from the other. 1) They have different lipid distribution. 2) Glycolipids and carbohydrates of glycoproteins are found on the outside of the plasma membrane. 3) The protein orientation of each side is different. How do the proteins in the plasma membrane of a red blood cell contribute to the shape of the cell? Which would cross a membrane faster (give the order, from fastest to slowest): ethanol, oxygen, lysine, a protein? Oxygen, ethanol, lysine, a protein.
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Final Review Questions from Stubbs Half Why does a potassium channel not allow sodium to cross the membrane? Because the ion channels are specific for each ion. A sodium ion would need a sodium channel, not a
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