Sociology_Exam_2_Review

Sociology_Exam_2_Review - Sociology Chapter 1 (Pages 20-33)...

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Sociology Chapter 1 (Pages 20-33) Review: I. Participant Observer Page 20: a. Researcher becomes part of what they study (Becomes both participant and observer) II. Sociology and the Scientific Method a. Scientific Method (Developed by Sir Francis Bacon) i. Involved several steps in a research process, including observation, hypothetical testing, analysis of data, and generalization b. Empirical i. Based on careful and systematic observation 1. Quantitative: Statistical Analysis 2. Qualitative: Interpretive Observation c. Deductive Reasoning: i. Specific influences are derived from general principals d. Inductive Reasoning: i. Arrives general conclusions from specific observations III. The Research Process: (p.21) a. Developing a research project i. Replication study 1. Repeated research but on a different group of people or different time or place b. Create a Research Design i. Logic and strategy underlying a research project (Choosing best observational technique and details from research design flow from specific questions asked) c. Hypothesis (p. 22) i. A prediction, tentative assumption that one intends to test d. Exploratory Research i. Broad and open ended e. Variable i. Can have more than one variable, can be age, income or abstract: social class etc. ii. Independent Variable 1. Cause if something else iii. Dependent Variable 1. Effect iv. Intervening Variables 1. Variables that fall between the independent and dependent variables v. Indicators 1. Something that points to or reflects an abstract concept f. Validity (p.23) i. Accurately measures or reflects a concept 1. Usually use more that one measure for a specific concept g. Reliability i. Measurement reliable if repeated and result is the same h. Gathering Data i. Researcher interviews people, observes behaviors, collects facts 1. Primary Data a. Original material gathered by sociologists 2. Secondary Data: a. Data that has been gathered and organized by some other party 3. Examples: a. Opinion polls, census data, national crime statistics, etc 4. When gathering data, sometimes group is too large to conduct research, so take
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data from a subset group and extrapolate (extend the application of) to get the picture of the whole ii. Sample 1. Any subset of a population (A large collection of people that a researcher studies and which generalizations are made) 2. It is possible to draw accurate conclusions about a population by only studying a part because the sample is a representative of the population as a whole 3. Sample should have same mix of people as the larger population and the same portions (Chosen at random) 4. Biased (Non represented) samples lead to inaccurate conclusions 5. Random Sample a. Gives everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected iii. Analyzing the Data 1. After data is collected it must be analyzed a. Data Analysis i. The process by which sociologists organize collected data to discover patterns and uniformities that the data reveal (May be statistical or qualitative and generalizations can be made
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Sociology_Exam_2_Review - Sociology Chapter 1 (Pages 20-33)...

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