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Sociology_Notes_for_Exam_3 - Notes for Exam 3 Final Chapter...

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Notes for Exam # 3- Final Chapter 10: Gender I. The Social Construction of Gender (p. 268) a. Defining Sex and Gender i. Sociologist use the terms sex and ender to distinguish biological sex identity from learned gender roles 1. Sex refers to biological identity, being a male or a female 2. Gender: the socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with members of each sex a. Gender is culturally learned: becoming a man or a woman is the result of social and cultural expectations that pattern women and men’s behavior ii. Different cultures have different gender roles associated with masculinity and femininity b. Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture? (P.269) i. Biological Determinism: refers to the explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics 1. Example; Men are more aggressive because of hormonal differences ii. Hermaphroditism: condition caused by irregularities in the process of chromosome formation or fetal differentiation that produces persons with mixed biological sex characteristics AKA intersex persons 1. Child is born with ovaries or testes, but the genitals are ambiguous or mixed iii. Transgendered: those who deviant from the binary system of gender, includes transsexuals, cross-dressers, and others who do not fit within the normative expectations of gender iv. Sociological Perspective: Biology alone does not determine gender identity, people must adjust to the expectations of others and the social understanding of hat it means to be a man or woman v. There is no fixed relationship between biological and social outcomes vi. If a person only sees men and women as biologically “natural states” that person misses some o the fascinating ways that gender is formed in society II. Gender Socialization (p. 270) i. Gender Socialization: Men and women learn the expectations associated with their sex ii. Affects the self concepts of women and men, their social and political attitudes, their perceptions about other people, and their feelings about relationships with others b. The formation of Gender Identity (p. 271) i. Gender Identity: basic to our self concept and shapes our expectations for ourselves, our abilities and interests, and how we interact with others 1. Shapes not only how we think about ourselves and others, but influences numerous behaviors ii. Gender Identity: strong effect on physical appearance 1. Related to lower self esteem c. Sources of Gender Socialization i. Different agents of socialization: gender socialization reinforced when receive disapproval or approval from these multiple influences 1. Parents: Most important sources of gender socialization 2. Through play learn patterns of social interaction, analytical skills, and the values and attitudes of their culture, ii. Those who have strong influences on gender 1. Schools, Religion, media d. The Price of Conformity (p. 273) i. A high degree of conformity to stereotypical gender expectations takes it toll on both
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men and women 1. Physical daring associated with means roles can result in early death from
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