genpsych2 - Chapter 2 Biological Foundations of Psychology...

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Chapter 2 – Biological Foundations of Psychology I. Biopsychology, Neuroscience, and the Evolutionary Perspective A. Many biopsychologists, comparative psychologist, and neuropsychologists adopt an evolutionary perspective in their approach to studying biological systems related to behavior II. Sensing, Processing, and Responding A. Sensing events requires that a stimulus activates a receptor B. Processing events takes place in the brain C. Responding to events occurs when the brain sends messages to the muscles III. The Nervous System A. Peripheral nervous system 1. Somatic division: Afferent nerves versus afferent nerves 2. Autonomic division a. Sympathetic division prepares the body for “fight or flight” b. Parasympathetic division returns the body to homeostasis B. Central nervous system 1. Spinal cord a. Sensory, motor, and interneurons course through the spinal cord b. Reflexes are automatic responses that occur prior to reaching the brain 2. The brain a. Hindbrain: Medulla, pons, cerebellum b. Midbrain: Reticular formation coordinates arousal and alertness c. Forebrain i. Limbic system, hypothalamus, thalamus, basal ganglia ii. Cortex: Two hemispheres, four lobes 3. Studying the functions of the brain
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genpsych2 - Chapter 2 Biological Foundations of Psychology...

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