genpsych4 - Chapter 4: Motivation and Emotion I. What is...

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Chapter 4: Motivation and Emotion I. What is Motivation? A. Factors that account for arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior II. Theories of Motivation A. Biological theories 1. Ethology – instinct, releasing stimuli, and biological underpinnings of behavior 2. Sociobiology – biological basis of social behavior 3. Internal states and drive reduction – striving for homeostasis 4. Optimum-level theories – best performance at specific levels of arousal B. Cognitive theories 1. Cognitive consistency theories – cognitive dissonance as an example 2. Incentive theories – motivated behavior is pulled by an incentive or goal C. Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1. A pyramid scheme to reach self-actualization D. The role of learning 1. The value of many objects or states is acquired, rather than intrinsic III. Dealing with Multiple Motives A. Basic conflicts – approach/approach, approach/avoidance, avoidance/avoidance B. Multiple approach-avoidance – several goals with good and bad features IV. Specific Motives A. Hunger 1. Lipostatic theory proposes weight fluctuations around a set point B. Sex 1. External factors – pheromones 2. Hormones – androgens and estrogens 3. Brain mechanisms – hypothalamus releases chemicals that activate glands 4. The sexual response – excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution C. Achievement 1. TAT an early stab at measuring achievement motivation D. Affiliation 1. TAT also used here to measure need to be with others V. The What and Why of Emotion A. Defining emotion 1. Emotions involve physiological and behavioral changes elicited by stimuli
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2009 for the course PSYCH 830:101 taught by Professor ? during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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genpsych4 - Chapter 4: Motivation and Emotion I. What is...

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