BioEE274_Exam_2_2008_key - TheVertebrates(BioEE274)...

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The Vertebrates (BioEE274) Name: Exam 2 – April 10, 2008 1. Indicate which of the following statements are true (T) and which are false (F). (2 pts. each) T With the exception of gars, lungs develop as a ventral outgrowth of the pharynx. F In solenoglyphous snakes, fangs are permanently erect. T Although salamanders lack an intromittent organ, they have internal fertilization. T The skulls of crocodilians are akinetic and have a secondary palate. T In turtles and crocodilians, inhalation and exhalation are “active,” requiring muscle contraction. T Some young caecilians eat their mother’s skin. F Fishes have fewer aortic arches than do birds. F Gastralia are present in crocodilians and extant birds. T Tail autotomy is a shared derived character of lepidosaurs. T As temperature increases, amphibians with lungs rely more on pulmonary than cutaneous respiration. F Intracranial kinesis decreases from tuatara to lizards to snakes. T As a general rule, all vertebrate embryos have a yolk sac. F During metamorphosis in amphibians, the gut lengthens to cope with a carnivorous diet. T Archosaurs are characterized by vocalizations and extensive parental care. For extra credit: T The opercular display by male Siamese fighting fish ( Betta splendens ) is an honest indicator of their condition, especially when levels of dissolved oxygen in the water are normal. (4 pts.) 2. What is a physostomous swim bladder? Explain how it works. (8 pts.) See lecture 12 A swim bladder that retains its connection to the gut. To add gas (when fish swims deeper and swim bladder compressed): the gas gland secretes gas into the gas bladder to prevent further sinking To remove gas (when fish swims toward surface and gas bladder expands): burp gas out mouth to prevent further rising 3. Describe the diversity of life histories in amphibians; include in your description the four main patterns. (8 pts.) See lecture 14 1. egg to larva to adult (3 stages; most common) 2. egg to adult (2 stages; direct development; lacks an independent larval stage) 1
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3. egg to larva (2 stages; paedomorphic species; become sexually mature without achieving adult morphology; e.g., retain external gills) 4. egg to larva to nonreproductive terrestrial eft to aquatic adult 2
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Name: 4. List 4 adaptations associated with burrowing in vertebrates such as caecilians and amphisbaenians. (6 pts.) See lecture 13 (caecilians) and lecture 16 (amphisbaenians) Possibilities: Elongate Limbless or nearly so (e.g., a few amphisbaenians have front limbs only) Reduced eyes Dermal folds/rings (annuli) Ossified skull (heavy/akinetic) Two sets of jaw closing-muscles (may hold jaws closed during burrowing; caecilians only) 5. Define the following 4 terms.
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BioEE274_Exam_2_2008_key - TheVertebrates(BioEE274)...

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