BioEE274_Final_key_2008_ - TheVertebrates(BioEE274 Name...

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The Vertebrates (BioEE274) Name: Final Exam – May 14, 2008 Please write your name on every page of this exam. Good Luck! 1. Indicate which of the following statements are true (T) and which are false (F). (2 pts. each) T Herbivores generally have hypsodont molars and omnivores generally have brachyodont molars. T Monotremes and marsupials have epipubic bones. F Mammals have a single occipital condyle. F Large body size slows heat loss due to a high surface area to volume ratio. T Whereas birds have a single middle ear ossicle, mammals have three middle ear ossicles. F In mammals with postpartum estrus, lactation blocks ovulation. T Rodents have ever-growing incisors and lack canines. T Eutherian mammals have a corpus callosum; monotremes and marsupials do not. F Across species of mammals, litter size tends to decrease as adult body mass decreases. T Cranial kinesis is highly developed in birds, but not in mammals. F Reciprocal altruism is favored in social groups with short-term, frequently changing membership. T Aves (Birds) is the only class of vertebrates in which social monogamy is the predominant mating system. F In Eutherian mammals, the energetic demands of gestation exceed those of lactation. F In birds, the crop is the muscular posterior region of the stomach. T Mammals with a plantigrade foot posture are less cursorial than those with an unguligrade foot posture. F The Female Deception Hypothesis proposes that females have been selected to conceal their fertility status in order to settle in territories occupied by other females. 2. Define interspecific brood parasitism and describe three adaptations of parasites and three adaptations of hosts. (8 pts.) See Lecture 21 Individual of one species lays all of its eggs in the nests of other species, and relinquishes all parental duties Adaptations of parasites: lay eggs quickly; can lay many eggs in a season; have eggs or young that resemble those of host; have young that develop rapidly Adaptations of hosts: conceal nest and defend when discovered; recognize foreign eggs or young and remove; abandon nest and start over; build new nest on top of old 1
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Name: 3. Distinguish between coevolution and convergent evolution. Give an example of coevolution in birds and convergent evolution in mammals. (8 pts.) See lecture 21 Coevolution: two or more species evolving with, or in response to, each other. Example from birds: hosts and brood parasites or hummingbird beaks (shape and curvature) match length and curvature of principal food plant. The key is that evolution is reciprocal and need to explain the selective pressures in your example for full credit. Evolution may cause brood parasites to produce young that mimic host young, while selection by parasites is causing host young to evolve new variation. Selection for pollination efficiency may lead to flowers evolving toward matching hummingbird beak length, while selection for nectar extraction will drive hummingbird beak evolution toward the same endpoint. See lecture 25
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2009 for the course BIOEE 2740 taught by Professor Zamudio,k. during the Spring '07 term at Cornell.

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BioEE274_Final_key_2008_ - TheVertebrates(BioEE274 Name...

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