ch.2notes

ch.2notes - Ch. 2 Communication, Perception, and Self...

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Ch. 2 – Communication, Perception, and Self Introduction We perceive the world around us with a personal lens- we can’t talk about perception unless we talk about how those perceptions influence and affect our sense of self Perceiving requires an understanding of the self- we can’t talk about perception without also talking about how it relates to the self Understanding the Perception Process Perception - process of using our senses to respond to stimuli Four stages of the Interpersonal Perception Process: o Attending and Selecting Requires us to use our visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory senses to respond to stimuli in our interpersonal environment Mindful - being observant and aware of surroundings Selective Perception - attending to things that fulfill our own needs or interest- we pay attention to some things and ignore others. o Organizing Requires us to place what are often a number of confusing pieces of information into an understandable, accessible, and orderly fashion We frequently categorize when we organize Relational Schemas - often created during this phase- developing a mental framework or memory structure to help understand experiences and guide future behaviors We need to establish a way to understand something or someone- schemas help us accomplish this task When organizing we look for consistencies rather than inconsistencies Organizing expedites the perception process Stereotyping - a problem occurs when organizing perceptions- occurs when broad generalizations are used to describe groups of people- result is the creation of a fixed mental image of groups- can be positive or negative o Interpreting Assigning meaning to what you perceive Achieving meaning is required for interpersonal communication to occur Interpretation is influenced by relational history, personal expectations, and knowledge of the self and other o Retrieving Individuals are asked to recall info stored in their memories Involves selection of memories Selective Retention - recalls info that agrees with our perceptions and selectively forgets info that doesn’t- communication with others is affected 1
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Ch. 2 – Communication, Perception, and Self Factors that Shape Perceptions Culture o Provides the meaning we give to our perceptions o Dictates how something should be organized and interpreted o Heritage affects how people perceive the world- affecting how people communicate with and receive communication from others Sex and Gender o Sex - biological makeup- male or female o Gender - learned behaviors a culture associates with being male or female o Androgynous- possessing both masculine and feminine traits in equally large amounts o Undifferentiated- possessing low amounts of masculinity and femininity o Men and women differ in their perceptions and perceptual ability- a result of the way they have been raised o Gender Role Socialization - the process by which women and men learn
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ch.2notes - Ch. 2 Communication, Perception, and Self...

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