Plant_Tissues_Handout

Plant_Tissues_Handout - Plant Cells and Tissues T HE PLA N...

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The young flowering plant shown on the left is constructed from three main types of organs: leaves, stems, and roots. Each plant organ in turn is made from three tissue systems: ground, dermal, and vascular. All three tissue systems derive ultimately from the cell proliferative activity of the shoot or root apical meristems, and each contains a relatively small number of specialized cell types. These three common tissue systems, and the cells that comprise them, are described in this panel. THE PLANT THE THR EE TIS S U E S YS TEM S Cell division, growth, and differentiation give rise to tissue systems with specialized functions. DER M AL TIS S U E: This is the plant's protective outer covering in contact with the environment. It facilitates water and ion uptake in roots and regulates gas exchange in leaves and stems. VAS CU LAR TIS S U E: Together the phloem and the xylem form a continuous vascular system throughout the plant. This tissue conducts water and solutes between organs and also provides mechanical support. G R OU ND TIS S U E: This packing and supportive tissue accounts for much of the bulk of the young plant. It also functions in food manufacture and storage. upper epidermis midrib leaf vein mesophyll (parenchyma) stomata in lower epidermis collenchyma vascular bundle epidermis endodermis pericycle G R OU ND TIS S U E Parenchyma cells are found in all plant tissue systems. They are living cells, generally capable of further division, and have a thin primary cell wall. These cells have a variety of functions. The apical and lateral meristematic cells of shoots and roots provide the new cells required for growth. Food production and storage occur in the photosynthetic cells of the leaf and stem (called mesophyll cells); storage parenchyma cells form the bulk of most fruits and vegetables. Because of their proliferative capacity, parenchyma cells also serve
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Plant_Tissues_Handout - Plant Cells and Tissues T HE PLA N...

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