122.Ch2.Macromolecules.Student(1) - BIO122:CellsandGenetics...

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BIO 122: Cells and Genetics Chapter 2:  Carbon and the Molecular  Diversity of Life Karen S Kabnick, PhD
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Bio 122: Cells and Genetics 1. Evolution and the Foundations of Biology 2. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 3. A Tour of the Cell 4. Membrane Structure and Function 5. An Introduction to Metabolism 6. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 7. Photosynthesis 8. Cell Communication 9. The Cell Cycle 10. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 11. Mendel and the Gene Idea 12. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 13. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance 14. Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein 15. Viruses
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Carbon and the Molecular  Diversity of Life Macromolecules What are macromolecules? Macromolecules of Life Polysaccharides Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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Smaller building blocks  Giant molecules Macromolecules:, polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Most macromolecules are polymers Polymers: smaller molecules (monomers) linked together Cells link monomers by  dehydration  reactions
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Organisms break down macromolecules – Cells break up polymers into monomers by  hydrolysis  reactions Giant molecules   Smaller building blocks
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Chemical Building Blocks of Life Macromolecules What are macromolecules ? Macromolecules of Life Polysaccharides Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
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Carbohydrates  = sugars for  energy and structure (CH 2 O) Sugar= Saccharide = monomer    Glucose:  C 6 H 12 O 6 Carbohydrates:  monosaccharides to  polysaccharides
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Carbohydrates: monosaccharides Monosaccharides: monomers Monosaccharides: simple sugars Glucose: sports drinks Fructose: fruit Glucose + fructose: honey Aqueous solutions: rings Monosaccharides: main fuel for  cellular work 3-7 carbons (CH 2 O) Five-carbon: pentoses Six-carbon: hexoses 
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Monosaccharides CH 2 O
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Monosaccharides: Glucose and  Fructose Isomers differ in arrangement of atoms Minor differences give isomers different  properties  Fructose tastes considerably sweeter than  glucose Fructose Glucose
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Monosaccharides   Disaccharides
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Simple sugars  (monosaccharides,  disaccharides): Polymerized sugar  (polysaccharides): Monosaccharides   Polysaccharides
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Three key types of polymerized glucose: glycogen
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(Complex) Carbohydrates:  Polysaccharides Starch:  digestible to produce monosaccharides for energy Plant energy storage Potatoes and grains Glycogen:  digestible to produce monosaccharides for energy Animal energy storage Liver, muscle Cellulose:  not digestible by animals
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