Chapter 8 Second Half OWL

Chapter 8 Second Half OWL - Wh 0.28Mammoniumnitrate...

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Wh ich of the following aqueous solutions are good buffer systems ? .   0.28  M  ammonium   nitrate  +  0.36  M  ammonia   . 0.38  M  acetic acid  +  0.27  M  sodium   acetate . 0.14  M  sodium   hypochlorite  +  0.21  M  hypochlorous acid . 0.23  M  hydroiodic acid  +  0.24  M  potassium   iodide . 0.21  M  nitrous acid  +  0.12  M  sodium   nitrite . Feedback: A good buffer consists of a weak acid + its conjugate base, or, a weak base + its conjugate acid.  The acid/base conjugates should have similar concentrations (within a factor of 10), so that the buffering capacity is about the same  for neutralizing any strong acid or strong base added to the system.  All of the concentrations are within a factor of 10 for the systems above, so consider just the compounds: System ...  Buffer ? nitrous acid ...  ...  sodium   nitrite HNO 2  =  weak acid NO 2 -  =  conjugate base YES hydroiodic acid potassium   iodide HI  =  strong acid I -  =  conjugate base ammonium   nitrate ammonia NH 4 +  =  conjugate acid NH 3  =  weak base YES sodium   hypochlorite hypochlorous acid ClO -  =  conjugate base HClO  =  weak acid YES acetic acid sodium   acetate CH 3 COOH  =  weak acid CH 3 COO -  =  conjugate base YES Which of the following aqueous solutions are good buffer systems ? .   0.38  M  calcium chloride  +  0.24  M  sodium chloride . 0.15  M  sodium hydroxide  +  0.26  M  sodium   bromide . 0.24  M  perchloric acid  +  0.20  M  sodium   perchlorate .
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0.14  M  nitrous acid  +  0.16  M  sodium   nitrite . 0.34  M  ammonia  +  0.33  M  barium hydroxide   . Feedback: A good buffer consists of a weak acid + its conjugate base, or, a weak base + its conjugate acid.  The acid/base conjugates should have similar concentrations (within a factor of 10), so that the buffering capacity is about the same  for neutralizing any strong acid or strong base added to the system.  All of the concentrations are within a factor of 10 for the systems above, so consider just the compounds: System ...  Buffer ? nitrous acid ...  ...  sodium   nitrite HNO 2  =  weak acid NO 2 -  =  conjugate base YES perchloric acid sodium   perchlorate HClO 4  =  strong acid ClO 4 -  =  conjugate base ammonia barium hydroxide NH 3  =  weak base Ba(OH) 2  =  strong base sodium hydroxide sodium   bromide NaOH  =  strong base NaBr  =  neutral salt calcium chloride sodium chloride CaCl 2  =  neutral salt NaCl  =  neutral salt Which of the following aqueous solutions are good buffer systems ?
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