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Unformatted text preview: BUS HMEAT What is bushm at? e Bushm at is them at of te strial wild anim e e rre als, Bushm kille for subsiste or com e d nce m rcial value kille Usually re rs to them at of gre ape othe e at s, r Usually fe prim s, ungulate rode and birds ate s, nts, Whe is bushm at harve d? re e ste
• Bushm at harve e sting occurs in thetropics of the Bushm Am ricas and Asia, e • Most prom nt and re ine cognize in We rn and d ste Most C ntral Africa e Why do pe do it? ople
• Bushm at has long be n a staplefood of fore dwe e e st lling Bushm t ribe in We and C ntral Africa. s st e Howe r, with thecontinual urbanization of Africa, ve Howe bushm at is now be ing a valuablecom odity. e com m What was oncea way of lifeto nativepe s of Africa is ople What now be ing a lucrativeindustry, supplying bushm at to com e growing m ts in village and citie around Africa s s growing arke • • Who is harve sting bushm at? e The arestill m re any African tribe that re sole on s ly ly The bushm at as a m ans for subsiste , and the tribe e e nce se s adhe to traditional ways of hunting this pre re y adhe But the arenow com e m rcial bushm at hunte who e rs But re usem rn te ode chnology to harve an e st norm ous am ount of bushm at in a m faste tim than e uch re t raditional m thods would allow e The com e se m rcial hunte arealso be aide by largelogging rs ing d The com panie who provideroads, trucks, and othe acce to the s r ss re oteare of Africa whe bushm at spe s m befound m as re e cie ay re Drive for thelogging com rs panie he to transport the s lp Drive bushm at to m t as we e arke ll TheHum S ty of theUnite S s. 14 Octobe 2007. http://www.hsus.org/wildlife ane ocie d tate r, /issue s_facing_wildlife /wildlife _trade /bushm at.htm e l http://www.hsus.org/wildlife Why is harve sting bushm at an issue e ? Re arch conducte by theWildlifeConse se d rvation Re S tudy indicate that ove onem s r illion m tric tons pe e r ye of bushm at is harve d fromAfrican fore ar e ste sts alone Many of thetarge d spe s areliste as thre ne te cie d ate d Many or e ndange d and ille slaughte of the spe s re gal ring se cie only furthe je r opardizethe chance for survival ir s only Inm any case largealpha m s areslaughte d for s, ale re t he largesizewhich yie a highe m t value ir lds r arke Whe the m s arekille thecom unitie in n se ale d, m s Whe which the thrive areofte fragm nte and le y d n ed ft vulne rableto de ation by othe anim cim r als Mothe with infants are rs Mothe slaughte d as we and the re ll, surviving infants aresold on theblack m t as pe arke ts As the infants grow into As se m aturity, the be e y com incre asingly difficult to handleand aree r ithe abandone or re ase to d le d t hecareof sanctuarie s Duike rs BlueDuike r Ze Duike bra r Gray Duike r Duike rs
• Duike aresm ante s that inhabit fore or de bush land rs all lope st nse Duike and aredivide accordingly into two groups: fore and bush d st duike rs. duike The arethem wide ad of all thefore ante s and are y ost spre st lope The re se d in East Africa by 13 of the 17 spe s. pre ir cie re nte Whilesom spe s arewide ad and areconside d low risk by spre re While e cie I UCN, them ajority of thespe s areconside d thre ne or cie re ate d e ndange d by CI TES re . • • Pre dators and Thre ats Am the natural e m s arethelion, le ong ir ne ie opard, che tah, se e rval, Am hunting dog, hye jackal, baboon, python, crocodileand e s. Large na, agle owls, m onitor lizards and ge ts pre on theyoung ne y Hum ans e – Bush m at hunting struction – Habitat de Duike as Bushm at rs e
• Duike areoneof theprim targe for both subsiste and rs ary ts nce Duike com e m s any gions of Africa. com rcial hunting activitie in m re Duike area pre rre spe s for bushm at hunte and trade for rs fe d cie e rs rs Duike se ral re ve asons; the aree y asily hunte e d, asily transportableby foot, and t he havea sufficie quantity of m at to behighly profitable y nt e . • Asse e and I m ssm nt pact
• S ve re nt studie havetake thecritical ne ste of m asuring, e ral ce s n xt p e not only how m bush m at is harve d, but e ating the uch e ste stim catchm nt are utilize by hunte e a d rs. With the data weareableto characte therangeof harve rate rize st s With se that e across there gion t hat xist Robinson and Re dford (1991) sugge that re st lative short-live anim ly d als Robinson such as duike (7-12 ye longe rs ars vity) should not beharve d at a rate ste t hat e e 40%of annual production. xce ds • • Duike Production Rate r s Example: Cameroon Lobéké Diffe ncein Harve vs. Production re st Blue 13 :
Duike Harve Rate r st s Re 38 d: • Thestudy com d duike fe pare r cundity and m ortality, de nsity, harve st The and production and conclude with e ate and e d stim s quations from Robinson and Re dford that the arebe ove xploite y ing re d. Harve e e sts twe n pe Harve xce ding production be e 333- 2,707%de nding on location. location. Whilethis is only onestudy it provide a good start and valuable s While inform ation to basefurthe studie off of. r s • • Conclusion Conclusion
• “ Thethre to Africa’s pre at dator populations cause by d dram de s in the pre baseis significant. Without atic cline ir y t heduike werisk losing le rs opard, golde cat, and num rous n e othe spe s like to beaffe d by theshifting dynam I n r cie ly cte ics. addition, scie ntists can only sugge what m bethe st ight e cts of losing the im ffe se portant frugivore to thestructure s , and the forefunction, of Africa’s fore sts.” and re
http://www.bushm at.org/pdf/FS e duike rs.pdf http://www.bushm Bushm at and Prim s e ate Prim s: An I ntroduction ate Gre ape account for 1% at s Gre of bushm at worldwide e of
lling price – High se low productiverate , – S re sm population size all sm n – Mistake capture ption – Tradition of consum Pote ntial Risks: Ecology Im portant se d dispe rs, e rse folivore s f olivore
hain re action –C Unsustainableharve st S ilarity to Hum im ans Pote ntial Risks: Dise ase Ebola virus: – Bodily fluids – Gabon 1996 HI V/AI DS ission Transm – Transm im – S ilarity to S Vcpz/S Vsm I I sistance – Re
Electron micrograph of Ebola virus Pote ntial Risks: Dise ase Ebola virus: – Bodily fluids – Gabon 1996 HI V/AI DS ission Transm – Transm im – S ilarity to S Vcpz/S Vsm I I sistance – Re He Risks alth Em rge of HIV/AIDSthrough a sim e ilar virus: Em nce S ian Im unode ncy Virus- S im m ficie IV Re trovirus found in num rous strains- found in 26 e Re spe s of prim s cie ate spe HI V-1: pre dom inant virus found in hum is ans HI de d fromS rive IV-cpz found in chim ps de HI V is m utate S S doe infe hum just d IV, IV sn’t ct ans HI as HI V doe infe ape sn’t ct s as He Risks alth Most like routeof ly t ransm ission to transm hum involve ans s hum contact with theblood of chim during the ps of butche proce ring ss butche O r risks includem the onke pox, and thede y adly Othe Marburg and Ebola Viruse s Marburg TheC vrotineC he artridge Produce by PointeNoir d Produce MAC in C C ongo MAC C kill a gorilla in one an shot shot Banne in C e d am roon cts – Effe of ban CS ase tudy: C ntral C panze e him e Pan troglodyte troglodyte s s Om nivorous S ocial: Groups of 5-150 individuals Long re productivecycle Found in dry and m fore of C ntral Africa oist sts e Found Range of Pan troglodytes C panze s: Thre and Prote him e ats ction Hunting for Me at Habitat loss
an – Hum conflict Pe trade t
– Usually infants Guine a Prote ction unde r Prote C TES I /Local Gove e rnm nts S in, Baile and Wade(2002)- BC te y TF Prim s constituteup to 15%of total carcasse ate s Prim found in bushm at m ts e arke f ound Gre Ape (Gorillas, C ps and Bonobos) are at s him Gre approx. 1 % approx. Unde stim d num rs dueto pre re ate be paration of m ate Unde unableto ide ntify spe s cie unable Populations of Gre Ape at s Gorillas ~3-5 k C panze s ~172-300 k him e Bonobos ~15 k S in, Baile and Wade(2002)- BC te y TF Although apem at re se a sm proportion of e pre nts all Although t hee norm bushm at trade it is thegre st thre ous e , ate at facing gre ape f acing at s. All thre spe s aree e cie ndange d…so any pe ntage re rce All of gre apem at found in bushm at m ts is too at e e arke m uch! C study raise public aware ss about the ase s ne bushm at crisis e bushm Kano and Asato C pare gorilla and chim population de om d p nsity with hunting pre hunting ssure 29 Village in C s ongo Re public No logging and no com e m rcial hunting Majority of inform ants we willing to e gorilla re at Majority and chim m at- social aspe pe ct and Kano and Asato C onclusions: S urvival of both apepopulations is at se rious risk. risk. UNS TAI NABLE US I f this can happe with sm village hunting in a large n all s habitat…this is causefor m conce about thegrowing ore rn com e m e d be com rcial bushm at tradesupporte by thetim r industry. S gie to I m trate s proveC onditions Im provelocal quality of lifeby re vitalizing a syne rgistic re lationship within re gional e cosyste s m syne
C onve rting Poache to Prote rs ctors I m m nt e ple e co-social im prove e proje m nt cts S gie to I m trate s proveC onditions Usetheim portanceof HIV transm ission and the Use possibilitie of ne strains to prom e s w ote nforce e of m nt bushm at laws e bushm Know pe oplein high place s “Unle wework toge r to changeattitude at all ss the s Unle le ls – fromworld le rs to theconsum rs of ille ve ade e gal bushm at – the will beno viablepopulations of e re gre ape in thewild within 50 ye at s ars.” gre -Jane GoodallGoodall- Bushm at? e
African linsang Le opard C arnivore s Not “traditional” bushm at spe s and arege rally e cie ne capture on an opportunistic basis. d C arnivore aretarge d and thetradein carnivore s te skins can besignificant. The areofte caught y n in traps se for othe m t r ore pre rre bushm at. Ge away ye can bem fe d e t t ortally injure d. Rangeof Carnivore s Most m m rs of thecarnivorecom unity arehighly e be m inse ctivorous African palmcive t DoubleThre at May beindire im ctly pacte be d causeof hunting of the m ir ost im portant pre spe s y cie
rs! – Duike m of thefore carnivore will e rie adve dire any st s, xpe nce rse ct or indire e cts fromthetwin thre of habitat conve ct ffe ats rsion and hunting Not Much inform ation found as the arem y ostly solitary and nocturnal Ele phants Ele phants area ke ystonespe s cie Historically be n associate with theivory tradeas e d we as habitat fragm ntation ll e Howe r, e phants areincre ve le asingly targe of ts the ille m t in bushm at. gal arke e Ele phants Both spe s of cie the African e phant, le Loxodonta africana, t he savannah e phant, and le Loxodonta cyclotis, the f ore e phant st le I ncre asing Thre at Them ir cte The ajority of the rangeis outsideof prote d are as are Thus m vulne rableto hum infringe e and an m nt Thus ore ille hunting gal ille I lle hunts for ivory has e gal clipse theinve d stigations of thepoaching of e phants for bushm at le e of At thesam tim thepolitical, financial and ee At adm inistrativecapacity to prote and m ct anagee phants le is not guarante d. e is Porcupine s Giant Rats Rode nts Giant pouche rat, grasscutte m d rs, ultim m rat, am ate porcupine springhare squirre e , , l, tc. Dueto thedifficulty of raising dom stic hoof stock in Africa e Ve Populate so rode populations are as gre ry d, nt n’t atly affe d, but thenum r of anim consum d can beHUGE cte be als e Giant pouche rat in e rn De ocratic Re d aste m public of C ongo (DRC locally e rm ) xte inate d He Risks alth S e e theonly sourceof om tim s I n parts of prote for locals in tropical Africa, Lassa fe r has be ea ve com se rious proble m of thege Mastom nus ys Fromthem ulti-m m rat am ate Hippos
Ope up grassland habitat n for sm r he alle rbivore as the close s y ly crop grasse and he s rbs.
I ncre nutrie ase nt le ls and ve prom fish populations via ote de position of fe m rial. cal ate Hippos Habitat loss and hunting pre ssureareke thre to y ats Habitat hippo populations. individuals. individuals. Thepygm hippo to le than 2,000-3,000 y ss The Wate dive r rsions, we tland re ation, and hunting clam Wate havele to a 10%de d clinein com on hippo m populations across the range ir . populations Hunte d Targe for subsiste hunting. Pygm hippo m at ts nce y e Targe has be n found in local m ts. e arke Take opportunistically by bushm at hunte n e rs. C ongo, oncehom to m than 30,000 com on hippos, has e ore m e rie d a 95%de xpe nce clinein hippo populations as a re of sult inte hunting pre nse ssure . Bushm at e C m hippos m also be om on ay t arge for theivory m t. ts arke Re porte case of an d s incre in ille sale of ase gal s ivory fromhippo canine t e th. e What is be doneabout thebushm at ing e What trade ? t rade I n re nt ye the has be n an e e nceof m ce ars re e m rge any groups de dicate to thee ination of thebushm at d lim e tradethrough various tactics. t rade The tactics includee se ducation, conse rvation, and The m anage e of re m nt source s C ntion on I nte onve rnational Tradein Endange d S cie re pe s Endange
• S t up a Bushm at Working Group to prom e e ote aware ss and action to achie be r and ne ve tte sustainablem m nt e sustainable anage e of thebushm at trade TheBWG has to “e ineissue raise by thetrade xam s d The in bushm at, with theaimof ide e ntifying solutions that can bewillingly im m nte by rangeS s.” ple e d tate t hat • • I nvite othe organizations to he contributeto s r lp be r and sustainablem tte anage e of thetrade such m nt , as theUnite Nations Food and Agriculture d Organization Organization Atte ntion is focuse in Cam roon, theC ntral d e e Atte African Re public, theCongo, theDe ocratic m Re public of theCongo, Equatorial Guine and a, Gabon Gabon Re ports availableat http:// http:// Re
www.cite s.org/e ng/prog/bushm at.shtm e l • • Bushm at C Task Force e risis
• Founde in 1999, theBCTF consists of conse d rvation Founde organizations and scie ntists de dicate to conse d rving thewildlifethat is sought in thebushm at trade e t he Goals of theBC TF
1. 2. 3. 4. Focus Atte ntion on thebushm at crisis in Africa e Establish an inform ation databaseand m chanism for e s Establish inform ation sharing re garding thebushm at issue e inform Facilitatee m nt rs holde rs Facilitate ngage e of African partne and stake in addre ssing thebushm at issue e in Prom collaborativede ote cision-m aking, fund-raising and Prom actions am them m rs and associate of theBC e be s TF actions ong http://www.bushm at.org/ e WildlifeC rvation S ty onse ocie
• I nvolve in both theBanyang-Mbo Wildlife d S anctuary in C e am roon and theOkapi Wildlife Re rvein De ocratic Re se m public of Congo Re • He e lp m He stablish zoning syste s to allow hunting in ce rtain are whileprote as cting and m aintaining core re gions to safe guard wildlife re • Work with logging com panie (m notably CI B) to s ost Work ban thetransport of bushm at fromlogging trucks e ban • I s a m m r of theBC e be TF
http:// www.wcs.org/inte rnational/Africa/bushm at e ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2009 for the course EBIO 4800 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Colorado.
- Fall '08