Psychology Notes - 1/19 History of Psychology Science of...

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1/19 History of Psychology Science of psychology o Roots 1. Philosophy Socrates, Plato, Aristotle 2. Biology Especially physiology Predisposition to knowledge Rene Decardes (1596 – 1650) o 1 st modern western philosophy o Trig o Four influences of Decardes on the development of psychology 1. Skepticism 2. Humans are defined by thinking: I think therefore I am 3. Body is a machine 4. Mind and body exist and interact Mind-body problem – how can two separate realms of existence—the material and the mental—interact o Empiricism : knowledge comes from experience through the senses 1/22 Physiology: how parts of the body function Wilkom Wunt (1832-1920): founder of modern psychology End of 1800’s when psychology became “official” Introspection : research method, in which observers examine, record, and describe their own internal mental processes Functionalism : view in psychology that focused on how mental/behavioral processes function. Developed in the U.S. The only place to get a PhD in Psychology was in Germany 2 influences for it’s development o Darwinism o America’s practical attitude getting money in return for psychology Behaviorism : the view that psychology should be an objective science without reference to the mind Should study behavior, not mind You talking about your thoughts is a behavior observation not an observation of the mind Brain  Thinking  Computer Development in brain sciences and computers let to Cognitive Psychology Clinical Psychology : a branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders
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Education Medical Grew more in the U.S. after WWII, when funding was put in for soldiers Freud Psychology: the science of behavior and mental processes Neuroscience: how brain and body are related to thinking, emotion, and behavior Evolutionary: how certain traits allow us to adapt to the environment and pass on our genes Cognitive : how we encode, process, and retrieve information Behavioral : how we learn observable responses Psychodynamics: how unconscious drives and conflicts influence thinking and behavior Major Subfields of Psychology Basic Research: pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base Applied Research : scientific study that aims to solve practical problems Clinical psychology : a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders Psychiatry: a branch of medicine dealing problems and repression with psychological disorders o Practiced by physicians (medical doctors) o Sometimes use medical treatments as well as psychological therapy Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic techniques based on Freudian or other psychodynamic perspectives o Usually practiced by psychiatrics o Focus on unconscious conflicts, developmental 1/29 Steps In A Scientific Study Formulate Hypothesis Design Study Collect data Analyze data and draw conclusions Report findings 1. Formulate hypothesis A. Theory
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