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Exam 2 Review - KINESIOLOGY KINESIOLOGY Exam 2 Review...

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Unformatted text preview: KINESIOLOGY KINESIOLOGY Exam 2 Review Tuesday, October 14 Exam Format Exam Format 50­60 Multiple choice questions Completely from the notes Lecture Posted on Blackboard Supplemental articles Neuromuscular Structure Neuromuscular Structure Organization Nerve structure Diseases (ALS, G­B, MG) Pharmacology (curare, botox, neostigmine) Spinal cord structure Motor Neuron & Motor Units Size / Type Innervation ratio PLEXUSES & MAJOR NERVES (information on handout) Key muscles innervated by each nerve Result of paralysis These two are related Motor Control – Force Output Motor Control – Force Output Voluntary: • Motor unit recruitment – Size Principle • Rate coding – Force­frequency relationship Involuntary: • Stretch reflex – muscle spindle • Golgi tendon organ • Central Pattern Generator Stretch Reflex / Muscle Spindle Stretch Reflex / Muscle Spindle Basic pathway Reciprocal inhibition (inhibitory interneurons) Recurrent inhibition (Renshaw cells) Control of rapid limb positioning Proprioception and injury Neural Adaptation to Training Neural Adaptation to Training And Aging Examples of Neural Adaptations to Training Examples • Early increases in strength • Bilateral deficit • Imaginary training • Cross-education • Reflex inhibition / potentiation Changes in the neural system with aging Changes • Strength • Motor neuron numbers • Fiber types • Training adaptations Muscle Structure and Mechanics Muscle Structure and Mechanics Structure: Function, Compartments and Structure Fiber Architecture – Fusiform vs. Penniform Muscles Cross-Sectional Area vs Physiological CSA Mechanics: Length – Tension Relationship Force – Velocity Relationship Active / Passive Insufficiency QUESTIONS ? Q UESTIONS ? ...
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