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Homework 4 (Week of Sept 22) - concentrations of enzyme...

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Brandon Pickett 24 September 2008 BY 123L Topic #10: Questions 1-4 1. Enzymes function optimally under specific conditions of pH and temperature. Increases in enzyme or substrate concentration will increase reaction rate. However, rate increases will be limited by substrate concentration or by enzyme concentration, unless both enzyme and substrate are available without limit. The reaction rate will also be limited by the intrinsic maximum velocity by which the enzyme itself acts. This is dependent on the affinity of enzymes for substrate. 2. Because enzymes will function only in defined environments, the activity of enzymes (and therefore the processes of metabolism) can be controlled by alterations in the environment. The rates of enzyme-catalyzed reactions can also be controlled by increased or decreased synthesis of the enzymes, since greater
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Unformatted text preview: concentrations of enzyme increase reaction rate. The supply of substrate will also limit the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. 3. When proteins are denatured, their secondary and tertiary structures are destroyed because hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds holding parts of protein chains together are broken. Heat and changes in pH can denature enzymes. 4. If 50 molecules of enzyme are present but only 25 molecules of substrate are present, then they enzyme cannot act at is maximum rate. If all molecules of enzyme could be engaged with substrate, much more product would be produced per unit time. Thus, the enzymatic reaction is limited in its rate by the lack of substrate (substrate-limited)....
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