poly sci exam 1

poly sci exam 1 - I. Meaning of Democracy 1. John Stuart...

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I. Meaning of Democracy 1. John Stuart Mill Believed Representative government was ideal. Member of parliament, empowered middle class votes, redistributed seats of parliament, increased # of voters 2. Direct Democracy vs. Representative Democracy Direct democracy-government in which citizens vote on laws and select officials more directly Ex: Athenian Polis Representative democracy-government that derives its powers indirectly from the people, who elect those who will govern; also called a republic. Based on principle of majority rule. Ex: Roman Republic Consititutional Democracy – U.S. system in which rights of individuals and legal constraints on power of majority are law, changeable only thrugh extraordinary means. The traditional objection to democratic government is the risk of Tyranny of the majority. 3. Hun Gats lack of existence of a will of the majority Maybe the decision to leave is one tantamount to changing the constitution of the society. Under that scenario, you would need a supermajority vote to leave. In the U.S., you need a 2/3 vote of Congress and ¾ vote of the states. So, what happens if this is the rule? Two-Stage Majority Run-off —who wins under this scenario? Plurality – Let’s say 34 percent want to stay, 33 percent say go North, and 33 percent say go South. Who wins? 4. Two stage majority voting Voter simply casts a single vote for their favorite candidate. However, if no candidate receives an absolute majority of votes, then all candidates, except the two with the most votes, are eliminated, and a second round of voting occurs. 5. Plurality Voting Conducted to elect one of three or more candidates. Each voter can vote for one candidate, and the candidate who receives most votes wins. There is no requirement that the winner gain an absolute majority of votes. Calculations of a priori rule suggest this is least effective Condorcet method.
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Simple Plurality or Winner takes all used in U.S. Often used to elect executive officers or members of a legislative assembly. 6. Condorcet Method A Condorcet method is any single-winner election method that meets the Condorcet criterion that is, which always selects the Condorcet winner, the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election. The winner is the candidate whom voters prefer to each other candidate, when compared to them one at a time. This candidate can easily be found by conducting a series of pairwise comparisons. II. Pre Constitutional America 1. John Locke British philosopher. Greatest influence on constitution and decleration of independence. Two Treatises of Government. Popular Soverignty- Lockean Idea expressed in Decleration of Independence. Power is ultimately vested in the people, not in the government. John Locke argued that all men are born with certain natural rights
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poly sci exam 1 - I. Meaning of Democracy 1. John Stuart...

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