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ericas%20lab%201%20slideshow - Biology 1031 Biology 1031...

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Unformatted text preview: Biology 1031 Biology 1031 ­entrance quiz (normally first thing) ­lab safety talk ­visit lab website: lab link at http://www.auburn.edu/biol1031 ­intro lecture on Protists and life cycles ­lab Lab 1: Kingdom Protista Lab 1: Kingdom Protista Classification overview, importance of taxon names in lab • Kingdom Protista overview • Protist phyla (taxonomy for lab) • • Life Cycles • • • protozoans algae plasmodial slime molds Classification Classification Highest level of classification is Domain; next level is Kingdom • There are three domains: • • • • Bacteria (prokaryotic) Archaea (prokaryotic) Eukarya (eukaryotic) Classification Classification • There are 6 kingdoms: • Domain Bacteria – Kingdom Eubacteria • Domain Archaea – Kingdom Archaebacteria • Domain Eukarya – 4 kingdoms: • Protista • Fungi • Plantae • Animalia Classification Classification • Many lab exercises and questions on quizzes and practicals will involve you knowing taxons (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, etc.), so pay attention to these! especially phyla!!! • Kingdom Protista Kingdom Protista This kingdom is very diverse in habitat and life form. The kingdom includes unicellular organisms, large multicellular algae and plasmodial slime molds. Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans some protists are loosely grouped together as “protozoa” – not a formal taxon Protozoa – “first animal” may utilize flagella, cilia or pseudopodia for locomotion Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans Phylum Euglenozoa – euglenid flagellates Phylum Gymnamoeba – amoebas; use psuedopodia Phylum Ciliophora­ ciliates Phylum Apicomplexa­ spore­forming parasites Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans Phylum Foraminifera – marine; secrete a calcareous shell (test) Phylum Radiolaria – marine; secrete – test forms spiral patterns siliceous (glass­like) tests – tests are extremely fragile and are often only seen as fragments Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans The movement of the organism can indicate the type of locomotion – ciliates tend to have fast, smooth motion – flagellates are often slower with an almost spiraling motion and – those using pseudopodia are slow and have an oozing, liquid movement Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans examples to look for: Paramecium (Ciliophora) is a typical ciliate, which contains a large darkly stained macronucleus Amoeba (Gymnamoeba) has many pseudopodia for locomotion and food capture (continued….) Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans Trypanosomes (Euglenozoa) are parasitic flagellates living in the blood of vertebrates; disease example: African sleeping sickness Plasmodium (Apicomplexa) is a parasite living within the blood of mammals and birds that causes malaria Protist phyla ­ protozoans Protist phyla ­ protozoans Things to do: – look at the provided cultures and slides SLIDES: 1 Mixed Protozoa 2 Foraminifera 3 Radiolaria – look for pseudopodia and ciliated grooves being used for ingesting food – identify as many protozoans as possible with the dichotomous key Protist phyla ­ algae Protist phyla ­ algae Phylum Chlorophyta­ green algae Phylum Phaeophyta­ brown algae Phylum Rhodophyta­ red algae Phylum Bacillariophyta­ diatoms Phylum Chlorophyta­ green algae Phylum Chlorophyta largest phylum of algae very diverse in life form, size and complexity ranging from unicellular to colonial to filamentous to thallus bearing (simple vegetative body, no true roots, stems or leaves) several feet some green algae can be stretch for Phylum Chlorophyta­ green algae Phylum Chlorophyta Chlamydomonas – – unicellular; motile, with two anterior flagella that pull the organism through the water – under lower light intensity a cup shaped chloroplast, pigmented eyespot and clear nucleus may be observed – complete the Chlamydomonas life cycle on page 1.11. Phylum Chlorophyta­ green algae Phylum Chlorophyta Gonium and Volvox are motile, colonial green algae. – Gonium colonies are flattened and are held together by gelatinous material – Volvox colonies are large spheres; usually within the sphere are several conspicuous daughter colonies Phylum Chlorophyta­ green algae Phylum Chlorophyta Hydrodictyon Oedogonium Ulva – – – – non­motile; colonial – multinucleate cells, separated by cross walls – non­motile – filamentous (thread­like); unbranched filaments multicellular; relatively large mature body is a flattened tissue­like sheet isomorphic alternation of generations Phylum Chlorophyta­ green algae Phylum Chlorophyta look at the provided cultures, slides, and pressed specimens colonial Volvox may also be in the mixed protozoans Slide: 1­2 Oedogonium Pressed specimen of Ulva Phylum Phaeophyta­ brown algae Phylum Phaeophyta include marine seaweed and kelps – have large, multicellular, complex bodies that form a flattened blade, stipe (stalk) and holdfast – “kelp forests” are important marine ecosystems, typically found in cool or cold, nutrient rich areas look at the pressed specimens Phylum Rhodophyta­ red algae Phylum Rhodophyta multicellular and marine – often found in deep waters due to their extreme efficiency at capturing green, blue and violet light waves – also found in tropical waters, contributing to the formation of coral reefs (coralline algae) – complex body is often comprised of interwoven cells look at the pressed specimens Protist phyla – slime molds Protist phyla – slime molds Phylum Myxogastrida­ plasmodial slime molds – ooze on the forest floor – non­walled, multinucleate masses of protoplasm called a plasmodium – plasmodium is a feeding stage – in harsh conditions the plasmodium enters an alternate life form in which sporangia (stalked fruiting bodies) are produced – Example: Physarum (yellow, in Petri dishes) Life Cycles Life Cycles Zygotic Meiosis Gametic Meiosis Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) note basic life cycle framework for Chlamydomonas, Oedogonium, and Ulva Life Cycles Life Cycles mitosis? gametes 1N 1N 1N meiosis 2N fertilization 2N (zygote) mitosis? Zygotic Meiosis – zygote Zygotic Meiosis – zygote directly undergoes meiosis mitosis gametes 1N 1N 1N meiosis 2N •Green algae • Some fungi Some •Protozoans fertilization 2N (zygote) Gametic Meiosis – gametes Gametic Meiosis – gametes formed directly by meiosis gametes 1N 1N 1N meiosis 2N •Animals •Brown algae •Some fungi fertilization 2N (zygote) mitosis Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) – Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) mitosis in two positions in life cycle forms two distinct multicellular generations; meiosis forms spores mitosis gametes 1N 1N 1N meiosis 2N •Plants •Some fungi fertilization 2N (zygote) mitosis QUESTIONS? Questions? Questions? ...
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