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Ericas lab 3 s - Kingdom Plantae overview • Non­Vascular plants • • • • • • • • Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Hepatophyta Phylum

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Unformatted text preview: Kingdom Plantae overview • Non­Vascular plants • • • • • • • • Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Hepatophyta Phylum Anthocerophyta Phylum Psilophyta Phylum Lycophyta Phylum Arthrophyta Phylum Pterophyta Lab 3: Non­Vascular and Lab 3: Non­Vascular and Seedless Vascular Plants • Seedless Vascular plants Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Plantae eukaryotic, multicellular, with cell walls rich in cellulose most are photosynthetic most closely related to green algae adaptations to life on land vary between groups sexual life cycle for all plants is alternation of generations Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) – Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) mitosis in two positions in life cycle forms two distinct multicellular generations; meiosis forms spores mitosis gametes 1N 1N 1N meiosis 2N fertilization 2N (zygote) mitosis Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) gametophyte mitosis gametes 1N spores 1N 1N meiosis 2N fertilization 2N (zygote) sporophyte mitosis Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) gametophyte mitosis gametes 1N spores haploid (1N) haploid generation generation 1N 1N meiosis diploid (2N) diploid generation generation 2N fertilization 2N (zygote) sporophyte mitosis Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Plantae plants groups are defined mostly based on: – adaptations to land vascular tissue or not seeds or not – differences in life cycle dominant generation (sporophyte or gametophyte) homospory or heterospory Non­Vascular Plants Non­Vascular Plants vascular tissues are specialized tubes for conducting water and nutrients throughout the plant body vascular tissue non­vascular plants lack – this limits them in size – also limits them mostly to moist areas or moist times of the year gametophyte is dominant in these Non­Vascular Plants Non­Vascular Plants plants – gametophyte larger than sporophyte – sporophyte depends on gametophyte for food (at least in part) – “deadbeat sporophytes” – most sporophytes cannot perform photosynthesis Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) gametophyte mitosis gametes 1N spores 1N 1N meiosis 2N fertilization 2N (zygote) sporophyte mitosis Non­Vascular Plants Non­Vascular Plants 3 extant phyla: – Phylum Bryophyta…true mosses – Phylum Hepatophyta…liverworts – Phylum Anthocerophyta…hornwarts Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) • NOTE: for these and all other tasks for the whole semester, focus on: • learning the key terms (mostly bolded in your lab manual), especially phyla!!! • identifying structures associated with the key terms • associating terms and structures with their position in the life cycle of the organism where appropriate Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) • tasks: • life cycle – • study and complete Figure 3­1 • attend TA small group talk • examine protonemata on Petri dishes and slides • examine Mnium slides of antheridial and archegonial heads Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) • tasks: • examine slide of sporophyte capsule • examine live and preserved specimens of mature gametophytes and sporophytes • Some are at the back table • Some are at your table • tube with Polytrichum anteridia • tube with Polytrichum sporophyte • plate with Mnium sporophyte Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) Phylum Bryophyta (true mosses) • A reminder/clarification – for ANY specimen that you observe in lab, itand its name (such as Mnium) are fair game as part of the information you may be given in a test question where you must identify the phylum or other taxonomic group! Phylum Hepatophyta Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts) • many have liver­like shape (thalloid shape, or thallus) special structures: gemma cups and gemma for asexual reproduction • Phylum Hepatophyta Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts) • tasks: • life cycle – study and complete Figure 3­4 • examine specimens at back table • examine plates at your table for gemma cups, antheridiophores, and archegoniophores • examine slide of Marchantia antheridial head • examine slide of Marchantia sporophyte (the spore tetrads slide) • sporophyte actually able to perform photosynthesis (green “horns”) Phylum Anthocerophyta Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts) • tasks: • examine specimens of Anthoceros at back and at your table; compare to Figure 3­5 Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants have vascular tissues – xylem for water and minerals flow is from roots to the rest of the plant (“up only”) – phloem for carbohydrates and other nutrients flow is in whatever direction is needed (“up or down”) Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants sporophyte is dominant in these plants – sporophyte is larger than gametophyte – sporophyte does NOT depend on gametophyte – “free­living” – also, gametophyte does NOT depend on sporophyte Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) Alternation of Generations (Sporic Meiosis) gametophyte mitosis gametes 1N spores 1N 1N meiosis 2N fertilization 2N (zygote) sporophyte mitosis Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants 4 existing phyla: – Phylum Psilophyta...whisk ferns – Phylum Lycophyta…clubmosses – Phylum Arthrophyta…horsetails – Phylum Pterophyta…true ferns Phylum Psilophyta (whisk ferns) Phylum Psilophyta (whisk ferns) • most “primitive” vascular plants – no true leaves • tasks ­ examine potted Psilotum specimen • note generation (sporophyte or gametophyte?) • other items on page 3.9 Phylum Lycophyta (club mosses) Phylum Lycophyta (club mosses) • superficial resemblance to mosses • not true mosses because members of phylum Lycophyta have vascular tissue Phylum Lycophyta (club mosses) Phylum Lycophyta (club mosses) • tasks • examine the potted specimens • compare to Figure 3­6 • look for strobili and other items on page 3.9 • look at slide of Lycopodium strobilus Phylum Arthrophyta (horsetails) Phylum Arthrophyta (horsetails) • • • • jointed (arthro = joint) alternative phylum names: Sphenophyta, Equisetophyta only one genus, Equisetum some silica­rich species used as pot scrubbers (scouring rushes) Phylum Arthrophyta (horsetails) Phylum Arthrophyta (horsetails) • tasks • examine the potted specimens, look for items on page 3.11 • compare to Figure 3­7 • examine Equisetum strobilus (in tube at your table) Phylum Pterophyta (ferns) Phylum Pterophyta (ferns) • largest group of seedless vascular plants tasks • learn the terms associated with ferns: rhizomes, fronds, sori, prothallus, etc. • study and complete Figure 3­8 • attend TA small group talk on the fern life cycle • compare and contrast with moss life cycle • • tasks Phylum Pterophyta (ferns) Phylum Pterophyta (ferns) • examine protonemata and heart­shaped fern prothalli using dissecting scope • examine slide of prothalli for antheridia and archegonia (fern prothallium slide) • examine specimens; in mature sporophytes note appearance, fronds, sori • examine sori (in plate at your table) • examine slide of sporangia (Cyrtomiom sorus slide) ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/24/2009 for the course BIOL 1031 taught by Professor Bowling during the Spring '08 term at Auburn University.

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