ch15 - The Ferment of Reform and Culture Mid 19th century:...

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The Ferment of Reform and Culture Mid 19 th century: A third revolution in America Religious revivals and reform movements Ralph Waldo Emerson promoted better public schools and rights for women, miracle medicines, polygamy, celibacy, rule by prophets, and guidance by spirits Societies formed against alcohol, tobacco, profanity, and transit of mail on Sabbath day. Crusade against slavery REVIVNG RELIGION 1850 -Church attendance: ¾ of 23 million Americans Alexis de Tocqueville: “no country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America.” Calvinists no longer strict French revolution has soften the old orthodoxy ideas 1794 Thomas Paine’s book The Age of Reason shockingly declared that churches were “set up to terrify and enslave mankind, and monopolize power and profit. Anticlericalism: rarely malicious. But Jefferson and Franklin supported embraced liberal arts of Deism that Paine pronounced - Deists: relied on reason rather than revelations, on science rather than on the bible. -rejected concepts on original sin and denied Christ’s divinity -Yet believed in a Supreme Being who created the universe and capacitated humans w/ moral behavior. -Deism inspired a spin-off the severe *Puritanism-(Unitarian faith with pop. in New England by end of 18 th century) of the past. -Believed God existed in only one person rather than in orthodox trinity Unitarians -stressed the essential of human goodness rather than vile -believed in free will and possibility of salvation through good works. -saw God as a caring father than a stern creator -embraced idea by many leading thinkers like Waldo Emerson (rationalism and optimism contrasted to Calvinist’s hellfire believes, predestination, and human depravity) 1800: reaction against growing liberalism in religion SE frontier and cities of NE gave rise to 2 nd great awakening - converted souls, destroyed and reorganized churches, new sects, and encouraged evangelicalism (including it in prison reform, temperance cause, women reform, and crusade to abolish slavery) Second Great Awakening On frontier by huge “camp meetings” -had hell fire gospel by *itinerant-(traveling for work) preacher. -Many of these saved returned to their sinful ways but revivals boosted church membership and stimulated a variety of humanitarian reforms. -Easterners moved to do missionary work in W. w/ Indians, Hawaii, and in Asia.
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ch15 - The Ferment of Reform and Culture Mid 19th century:...

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