Lecture #17&18

Lecture #17&18 - Chemistry 2A-c W2009 (Ch9-62)158...

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1 1 s 2 s 2 p C: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 2 HUND’S RULE FOR THE GROUND STATE ELECTRONS OCCUPY DEGENERATE ORBITALS SEPARATELY THE SPINS ARE PARALLEL SO FOR CARBON THE GROUND STATE IS Chemistry 2A Chemistry 2A -c W2009 c W2009 (Ch9 (Ch9 -62)158 62)158
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2 1 s 2 s 2 p Ne: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 1 s 2 s 2 p F: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 5 1 s 2 s 2 p O: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 4 1 s 2 s 2 p N: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 3 Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Chemistry 2A Chemistry 2A -c W2009 c W2009 (Ch9 (Ch9 -63)159 63)159
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3 Example Na: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 3 s 1 VALENCE ELECTRONS VALENCE ELECTRONS Noble gases have fully-filled valence shells Example Ne: 1 s 2 2 s 2 2 p 6 Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost principle quantum level of an atom, i.e., highest value of n. Valence electrons are the ones involved in bonding. CORE ELECTRONS Na: [Ne]3 s 1 Chemistry 2A Chemistry 2A -c W2009 c W2009 (Ch9 (Ch9 -64)160 64)160
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4 The valence electron configuration of the elements in the periodic table repeat periodically HH e 1 s 1 1 s 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne 2 s 1 2 s 2 2 p 1 2 p 2 2 p 3 2 p 4 2 p 5 2 p 6 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 3 s 1 3 s 2 3 p 1 3 p 2 3 p 3 3 p 4 3 p 5 3 p 6 Every element in a group has the same valence electron configuration! Chemistry 2A Chemistry 2A -c W2009 c W2009 (Ch9 (Ch9 -65)161 65)161
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5 Transition Metals HH e 1 s 1 1 s 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne 2 s 1 2 s 2 2 p 1 2 p 2 2 p 3 2 p 4 2 p 5 2 p 6 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 3 s 1 3 s 2 3 p 1 3 p 2 3 p 3 3 p 4 3 p 5 3 p 6 K 4 s 1 Ca 4 s 2 Chemistry 2A Chemistry 2A -c W2009 c W2009 (Ch9 (Ch9 -66)162 66)162 Sc Scandium has the electron configuration: Sc: [Ar]4 s 2 3d 1 Because…. .
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6 1 s E 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p 3 d 4 s 4 p 5 s 4 d ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM FOR A MULTI- ELECTRON ATOM SCANDIUM ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION Scandium is the first TRANSITION ELEMENT ↑↓ Sc: [Ar]4 s 2 3d 1 Chemistry 2A Chemistry 2A -c W2009 c W2009 (Ch9 (Ch9 -67)163 67)163
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7 1 s E 2 s 2 p 3 s 3 p 3 d 4 s 4 p 5 s 4 d ↑↓ ↑↓
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2009 for the course CHEM chem 2a taught by Professor Ng during the Winter '09 term at UC Davis.

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Lecture #17&18 - Chemistry 2A-c W2009 (Ch9-62)158...

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