CHAPTER 11 - CHAPTER 11: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND...

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CHAPTER 11: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND PERSONALITY I. EMOTION REGULATION a. People differ both in their success at managing emotions in ways  appropriate to the social situation and the means they use to  accomplish this management and regulation b. When infants learn to speak they can talk about what distresses or  angers them, rather than communicating only through expressions  and actions c. When infants begin to move and can start to satisfy some of their  own desires, their need for an intense signaling system lessens d. Regulation starts with the modulation of the expression of emotion.  Initially fostered by the caregiver, then gradually becomes  internalized by the child e. Stages: in the first months the task is to achieve stability in  functioning, with neurological development and repeated  interactions, the child then learns to inhibit certain expressions and  soothe the self during the first year. The next phase is the  development of the self system, and of self-regulation, children  begin to develop a notion of an autonomous self, they start to think  about events, find different ways of interpreting them, and calm  themselves with thought, they gradually become more independent  in regulating their emotions, but supportive people remain vital to  emotional equilibrium f. Emotion regulation: individual differences in intensity, frequency,  and duration of emotions, concerns the balance of emotions  displayed by the individual g. Refer to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions:  the coping processes that lessen or augment the intensity of  experience h. Successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression, shifting  attention and reappraisal are the keys i. As people age, their motivation increases to derive emotional  meaning from life, rather than to expand emotional horizons.  Although responsiveness of the autonomic nervous system  decreases with age, experiential changes in emotion do not decline 
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as people age, but people seem to increase their skills of emotion  regulation as they age j. Everyone has certain emotions, and there are optimal levels at  which these emotions are experienced and expressed II. ATTACHMENT a. The “strange situation” and styles of attachment i. Three attachment styles:  securely attached  infants were  stressed when caregivers leave, but when their caregivers  return they seek them and can be comforted.  Ambivalent  attached  infants want to be near caregivers upon their  return, but will not be comforted and show a great deal of  angry and resistant behavior.  Avoidantly attached  infants  make no effort to interact when their caregivers return. ii.
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2009 for the course PSYCH 3850 taught by Professor Pizarro, d during the Fall '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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CHAPTER 11 - CHAPTER 11: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND...

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