I. Resistance and Revolution on a global scale• Enlightenment values began to migrate widely around the world by the early twentieth century.• Intellectuals in disparate locales played an important role in this process.– There were two types of intellectuals involved:• Young, highly educated, disaffected members of old and new-style elites• Individuals who understood instinctively what “the people” in their societies wanted in terms of political, economic, and social change. A term sometimes used to describe such individuals is “organic intellectual.”
• These two types of disaffected intellectuals promoted three types of political sentiments:– Nationalism, especially in places where a foreign presence was impinging on independence and sovereignty– Populism – an appeal to the needs of the people at large– Socialism as an antidote to the effects of global capitalism and as a way to secure the needs of “the people”• Be aware that not all of these sentiments coincided in all locales; for example, populists were not necessarily socialists, and nationalism tended to be an omnipresent sentiment everywhere.
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• Today’s lecture is about four concrete examples of how these trends in political thought produced both resistance and revolution throughout the non-Western world just before and after World War I. These examples are:– A populist revolution in Mexico– A populist, non-violent resistance movement to British colonialism in India– The creation of state socialism in Russia, now called the Soviet Union– A liberal, nationalist movement in China that produced, by 1921, China’s first revolutionaries dedicated to emulating the Soviet Union to build a revolutionary movement for socialism