Test 1 terms checklist

Test 1 terms checklist - Test breakdown Ch 13,14,15 10...

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Test breakdown: Ch. 13,14,15: 10 questions combined Ch. 22: 5 questions Ch. 23: 8 questions Ch. 24, 25, 26: 4 questions each A checklist of terms to help you review for Test 1. Additional terms may be found in lecture notes/slides. Sign into the mastering bio stuff from the book!!! Chapter 13 Tetrad: pair of homologs that are joined during synapsis Chiasma: x shaped region where 2 homologs are connected and crossing over occurs Haploid: gametes that contain a single chromosome set (n = 23); 22 autosomes, 1 sex chromosome Diploid: any cell with 2 chromosome sets (2n = 46) Reduction division: meiosis 1 as it halves the number of chromosome sets per cell Gene: hereditary units that are passed down between generations which program specific traits Gamete: sex cell that is what transmits the genes from each parent cell to transfer genes from one generation to the next Zygote: fertilized egg that contains both gametes from each parent cell (resulting in a diploid cell) Only cells in body not produced via mitosis Alternation of generations: life cycle for plants and some algae. Both diploid and haploid stages are multicellular Synapsis: where 2 homologs form one pair and become connected by their synapsis thus essentially making a centromere Sporophyte: multicellular diploid stage in plants and algae. Meiosis occurs to produce their haploids (spores). However this is not a gamete and splits mitotically
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Gametophye: the multicellular haploid cell in plants and some algae that did not split like a gamete but instead mitotically Life cycle patterns: Meiosis, Alternation, (plant, animals, fungi) o Plants have multicellular in both o Fungi have multicellular in haploids o Humans in diploid asexual reproduction: a single individual passes copies of all its genes to its offspring (reproduces via mitosis to produce 2 exact copies clones) Multicellular haploid Nondisjunction: failure of homologous pair to separate in Meiosis 1, or a failure of sister chromatids to separate in Meiosis 2 (affects outcome of gametes) Cell cycle stages Homologous: pair of chromosomes that match together in same size, centromere position, and staining pattern Mitotic/meiosis phases o Mitosis: conserves number of chromosome sets o Meiosis: Interphase, meiosis 1 (homologs separate), meisosis 2 (sister chromatids separate) crossing over: genetic rearrangement between nonsister chromatids during prophase 1 Maternal/paternal chromosomes Karyotype: the ordered display of all the pairs of homologous chromosomes Sister/nonsister chromatids: Sister chromatids are either part of a replicated chromosome that are held together to form one chromosome at the centromere Monosomy: no chromosomes in the gamete (product of nondisjunction) Trisomy: extra chromosomes in the gamete (product of nondisjunction) 3 mechanisms for genetic variation in sex. reprod. o
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Test 1 terms checklist - Test breakdown Ch 13,14,15 10...

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