week 6 reading guide (INCOMPLETE)

week 6 reading guide (INCOMPLETE) - 1. How did the...

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1. How did the Soviet-style socialism change after the death of Joseph Stalin? How effective was this change in improving the Soviet and Eastern European economies? (pp. 323-329) After Stalin died in March 1953, the socialist world’s orderly forward march broke apart, and national paths separated. Most of Central and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union softened the Stalinist model, providing more benefits to consumers, less favor to heavy industry, and more market-like incentives to managers and workers. Economic & social (and sometimes political) reforms swept the USSR and Central and Eastern Europe. The poor quality of life of the average citizen was the principal source of popular discontent Goulash communism was adopted by the Soviets and their Central and Eastern European allies. Governments shifted resources into consumer goods industries, housing construction, and other services and raised wages. They deemphasized heavy industry and increased the supply of consumer goods. The new emphasis on improving the quality of life of the populace had dramatic and quick results: From 1953 to 1957 real wages in Eastern Europe rose by between 30 and 60 percent. Discontent tailed off. The Soviets reorganized agriculture as well. The government raised agricultural prices, and collective farm earnings went up. These changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union largely accomplished their purposes. Economic growth remained strong and improved conditions in the cities and countryside. The two most pressing structural economic problems were over centralization and a lack of incentives. The Brezhnev-Kosygin regime that replaced Khruschchev in 1964 rolled back decentralization but continued to give local managers more authority over their enterprises The new Brezhnev-Kosygin leadership applied moderate incentive-based measures in 1965. Firms were allowed to keep some of their profits and distribute them to managers and workers, in bonuses or in kind. They increased foreign trade dramatically, both with other socialist countries and with the capitalist world. Other Central and Eastern European countries also decentralized planning and increased the role of prices and profits. How did the evolution of Chinese communism differ from the Soviet model? (pp. 329-334) The People’s republic of China moved toward extreme methods of Communist- style modernization
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The socialist camp reformed, moderated, and revised Stalinist principles, the Chinese expanded them in search of rapid industrialization and agrarian transformation They created enormous farm communes to accelerate progress from capitalism to communism, politicized all aspects of economic policy, and curtailed ties with the rest of the world. The first few years after the revolution were dedicated to reconstruction and
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2009 for the course INTB 3351 taught by Professor Priest during the Fall '08 term at University of Houston.

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week 6 reading guide (INCOMPLETE) - 1. How did the...

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