Physiology_TEST_2[1]

Physiology_TEST_2[1] - Blood and Immunity (LEC 1) FUNCTION...

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Blood and Immunity (LEC 1) FUNCTION OF BLOOD Transport Cellular waste: produced when molecules broken down ( Cells Kidneys) - Gases: ( 02 lungs-> tissue & C02 tissues to lungs) - Excess water: (carried by blood to kidney urination) - Hormones: carried by blood to target cells - Heat: Active tissue to Less active tissue Defence - transports cellular and molecular components of the immune system to the site of injury. - Blood clotting by haemostatic mechanisms prevents blood loss. pH Regulation - By buffering C02 + H20 -> h+ + HC03- ( H+ handled by Hb to regulate pH) - transports acids and bases to excretory organs (Kidney urine) Hematocrit - Blood volume occupied by RBC (viscosity increase (increase total peripheral resistance) = increase BP = heart work harder) - ( hemocrit – ratio –male 48% fem- 42 % --low hemocit = reduced 02 carrying capacity.) More fat means reduced blood volume. - To Separate Hematocrit: Test tube add anticoagulant ( Na citrate) ( prevents clotting) heaver components settle at the bottom or. Centrifuge. ( 55% plasma- transport proteins hormones electrolytes, 1% buffy coat ( Leukocytes and platelets, 45% rbc) (defence and clotting) Plasma: Electrolytes Dissolved in Plasma: Na, Cl, Ca, HCO3 Proteins in Plasma: Buffer H+ , Increase Blood viscosity, Fuel during starvation. Proteins: Albumin: Blood Osmotic Pressure because water can’t move out of capillary the pressure created by albumin drives out water for excretion. ( can be degraded during starvation) Globulin: (Alpha, Beta) - Clotting factors, Enzymes (Gamma) Immunoglobin: Immune system WBC Fibrinogen: Blood clotting All the proteins made in Liver EXCEPT GAMMA = WBC made in bone marrow SERUM: Blood plasma w/o any fibrinogen or other clotting factor. Leukocytes : WBC immune response system and are Nucleated unlike RBC. Can exit blood vessels to target area.
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SubClass Polymorphonuclear Granulocytes: Neutrophils: (50-80% of WBC), Highly mobile (Diapedesis) enter tissues. Phagocyte: ingest bacteria and digest using lysozymes. Increase during infection. Eosinophils: 1-4 % Allergic response. Phagocyte (but not main mechanism) defend against parasitic invaders by secreting toxic substances. Basophils: < 1% Also allergic response. Non Phagocytises release toxic material to defend against parasites. Histamine: Dilate blood vessels, Heparin: anticoagulant. Mononuclear Agranulocytes: Monocytes: BONE MARROW 5% of leukocytes, phagocytises, become macrophages in tissues. Can digest infected blood cells viruses etc. Lymphocytes: 30%, also immunocytes , B cells – antibody T cells - cell mediated response Abnormal tissues marked my chemical called opsonins for degradation so normal tissues not degraded by neutrophils and monocytes. Platelets
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Physiology_TEST_2[1] - Blood and Immunity (LEC 1) FUNCTION...

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