Biology Test 2 Notes

Biology Test 2 Notes - Biology Test 2 Notes I II III IV V...

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Biology Test 2 Notes I. Enzymes a. They are proteins and organic catalysts b. Almost all are proteins c. Large globular proteins i. Very large molecules with primary, secondary, tertiary, and sometimes quaternary functions…based on shapes II. Enzyme functions a. Organic catalysts i. Speed up rate of reaction, but are not used up during the reaction 1. Make it go faster, but are not apart of the reaction 2. Decrease activation energy b. Very specific i. Any given enzyme will only catalyze a specific reaction III. Enzyme activity a. Enzyme + substrate (reactants) b. Enzyme and substrate will physically come into contact which will create a complex i. This will lower activation energy, which speeds up change from substrate to product c. Enzyme Product Complex i. Because of new properties, it wants to separate d. Enzyme + Product IV.Induced Fit Model a. Substrate binds to interactive site b. This alters the shape fo the enzyme c. Creates a fit that promotes reaction
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V. Competitive inhibition a. Ways to prevent enzymes from working without destroying them b. The inhibitor binds to the active site; it competes with the substrate. i. Reversible or not VI.Non Competitive Inhibition a. The inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site and alters the shapes of the active site VII. Allosteric Inhibition a. b. Enzyme alters between active and inactive forms c. Stabilizes the in active form d. The molecule is almost equally stable in both states so it can switch back and forth by itself e. Inhibitor binds to a site other than the active site and stabilizes one shape of enzyme (inactive shape) VIII. Why is enzyme inhibition an important topic? a. Roundup, Aleve, Viagra IX.Cells a. The minimum organization of living matter X. Cell membrane models a. All cells have a thin outer covering b. Plasma membrane or cell membrane c. Early models inferred the structure from chemical and permeability properties of the membrane d. If you put water on a membrane, it sheets out… XI.Fluid-Mosaic Model a. Phospholipid bilayer with a mosaic of associated proteins i. Not very organized XII. Cell Coat
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a. Composition i. Glycolipids and glycoprotein’s ii. Function: cell recognition (ammune system) XIII. Why do cells have membranes? a. Functional properties i. Maintain concentrations of molecules and ions ii. Create free energy gradients iii. Orient molecules into functional complexes XIV. Membrane permeability a. Size and shape of the molecule i. Small molecules are more permeable than the big molecules b. Solubility in lipids i. Steroids can pass thru membranes and hormones cant c. Net electric charge i. Non charged molecules pass thru membrane, charged molecules tend to not pass d. Other chemical properties e. Water is always freely permeable XV. Cystic fibrosis a. Life expectancy is mid-30’s b. Lungs/Pancreas c. Genetic Recessive Allele d. Membrane Transporter (Cl-) e. Impacts Mucous Production f. 1 in 20 have gene, but no effects g. Mucous lining airways was too thick XVI. Diffusion a. Physical property of matter
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b.
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