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Test 3 - Test 3 I II III IV V Where did most of the...

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Test 3 I. Where did most of the mass (Dry weight) of this tree come from? a. AIR, not sun II. Molecular Basis of Inheritance a. What is the structure of the genome? i. Chromosome and DNA structure b. How is the genome occupied? i. DNA replication c. What is the genome used for? i. Protein synthesis III. Chromosome Structure a. Eukaryotic chromosome structure i. DNA (linear molecule) ii. Histone proteins iii. When keep coiling, it will eventually form into a little “ball” IV.DNA structure a. Four nucleotides b. Complementary base pairing (Hydrogen bonds) i. Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine ii. Hydrogen = weak bonds which will allow for easy separation in order to create new strands c. Double helix i. Two backbones d. Anti-parallel backbones i. 5—3 ii. 3—5 e. DNA Replication is used to make DNA from DNA
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f. DNA Replication is semi-conservative g. Ultimately the information in DNA is used to make proteins i. Purine + Purine = too wide ii. Pyrimidine + pyrimidine = too narrow iii. Purine + Pyrimidine = width consistent with Xray data 1. Purines = Guanine and Adenine 2. Pyrimidines = Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil h. This is semi-conservative because there is always one old DNA and one new DNA. V. How is DNA copied? a. Replication i. Begins at many origins ii. Strands must separate and unwind 1. Helicase, Topoisomerases, and SSB (Single stranded binding proteins) a. SSB proteins are responsible for holding the two individual strands apart b. Toiperisomerases relieve stress caused by all the replication bubbles i. Figure 16.13 c. Helicase enzyme that unwinds DNA 2. Process a. In order to start, have to add a primer. We prime it with a Primase made of RNA. b. DNA Replication i. DNA Polymerase – responsible for adding new nucleotide 1. Molecule that could only attach to the primer ii. Fuse sections 1. 3–O—5
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a. will have to go opposite of what it is now…so it will go from 5-3, right to left…to 5-3,left to right. i. 5—O—3 so Leading strand will be way 2. Okasazaki fragments 3. Lagging strands = lagging because they are behind, slower process a. I have to prime, replicate, jump back, prime, replicate, jump back 4. Once done with leading and lagging strands, we will fuse together with a process known as DNA Ligase a. Fragments will have to be joined iii. Semi-conservative iv. Process 1. Strands separate and unwind them a. Involves Helicase, Topoisomerases, SSB proteins 2. Add primer (Primase enzyme) 3. Replication (DNA polymerase) a. Adding new nucleotides to template 4. Fuse sections/fragments together (DNA ligase) 5. Remember: a. New pieces built 5’-3’ and anti-parallel c. Questions i. What happens if the wrong base is added? 1. If it’s caught early, base is knocked out and right is put in by the “proof-reading” enzymes 2. If not caught early, it will become a mutation ii. Where does the energy come from?
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