BIOS Notes

BIOS Notes - BIOS Notes I. Chapter 1 a. What is Science? i....

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BIOS Notes I. Chapter 1 a. What is Science? i. A body of knowledge, which helps us to understand nature. b. What do scientists do? i. Make observations ii. Attempt to discern patterns (which leads to a prediction) iii. Assume its like past (match in gas will explode just like it always has) c. Two important points of science: i. Science only deals with phenomena, which can be observed. ii. We assume the future is like the past. d. Scientific method i. Observations ii. Generalization of material iii. Predictive statements or hypotheses iv. Tests v. Over again e. What is the outcome of the scientific method? i. Terminology 1. Behind the scenes ii. Hypothesis 1. What will happen iii. Theory 1. Hypothesis based on your understanding of what will happen 2. Tested, re-examined, etc.
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3. Theory of evolution is not hypothesis because it has been proven correct on multiple occasions iv. Law 1. Absolute fact due to many tests f. What is biology i. Characteristics of living systems 1. Organization (highly organized)** 2. Energy use** 3. Development (Growth) 4. Reproduction 5. Evolve (not stagnant) a. Generations and populations evolve; not people 6. Response to environment a. Communication between species b. Example: poking animal to see if dead or not c. **Response always involves energy use** g. Scale of Nature i. What scales are biologists interested in? 1. Atomic 10 -8 meters 2. Community/ecosystem 10 6 meters h. Approaches to Biology i. Reductionist approach 1. Take it apart in detail ii. Wholist approach 1. The big picture II. Chapter 2 i. Why is atomic structure biologically important? 1. Organisms are composed of 11 basic elements
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2. We are made up of a lot of water which evenly dissolves the chemicals in us. b. What determines Solubility? i. Like dissolves like ii. Like in terms of polarity iii. Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents iv. Non polar solutes dissolve in non polar solvents c. What determines Polarity? i. Atoms 1. Definition a. Smallest unit of matter separable by normal chemical means b. Smallest unit of an element that retains all of the properties of that element xc ii. Subatomic particles Particle Mass Electric charge Proton 1 dalton +1 Neutron 1 dalton 0 Electron ~0 daltons -1 1. Where are these particles located? a. First ring = K = 2 electrons b. Second ring = L = 8 electrons c. Third ring = M = 8 electrons d. Electrons are located in the orbital’s d. Atomic structure i. Bohr Model is what the above information is called ii. Electrons moving in orbital’s or shells around the nucleus iii. The electrons always try to be in the lowest orbital possible (closest to the nucleus)
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e. Super Six Proton Neutron Electron Atomic Mass Atomic # Hydrogen 1 0 1 1 dalton 1 Helium 2 2 2 4 dalton 2 Carbon 6 6 6 12 dalton 6 Nitrogen 7 7 7 14 dalton 7 Oxygen 8 8 8 16 dalton 8 Carbon 14 6 8 6 14 dalton 6 i. Atomic Number 1. Protons in an atom 2. Arrangement of elements on periodic table ii. Atomic Mass 1. Sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom f. Valence electrons
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2009 for the course BIOL 1201 taught by Professor Wishtichusen during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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BIOS Notes - BIOS Notes I. Chapter 1 a. What is Science? i....

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