Anthropology Full Book Notes

Anthropology Full Book Notes - Anthropology Full Book Notes...

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Unformatted text preview: Anthropology Full Book Notes Get first chapter from computer Chapter 2 I. Introduction a. The earliest human ancestors evolved from a species that lived some 5 to 8 million years ago. That ancestral species was the last common ancestor we share with chimps, and it was one of a group of animals that separated monkey-like ancestors some 20mya. b. Why are monkeys still around? i. As primate lineages diverged from one another, each went its separate way. Some became extinct, but a few gave rise to apes and humans while others evolved to monkeys. c. Because evolution takes time, we rarely witness the appearance of new species except in microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. d. Evolution is a theory that explains how biological change occurs in species over time, and it’s stood the test of time. I I. A brief History of Evolutionary Thought a. Natural Selection – the most critical mechanism of evolutionary change first articulated by Charles Darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals. b. Charles Darwin was the first person to explain the basic mechanics of the evolutionary process. c. Wallace independently developed the same conclusion as Darwin. d. Development of Ideas leading to their theory i. Middle Ages was a hierarchal, rigid class system which hadn’t changed for centuries, this is why they liked the fixity of species. ii. Fixity of Species – the notion that species, once created, can never change; an idea diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution. iii. Believed God designed the animals, etc. the way he wanted and that was permanent. iv. Also, believed Earth was very young and recent. v. James Ussher analyzed the “begat” chapter of Genesis and determined the Earth was created the morning of October 23, 4004 B.C. 1. Not first person to say Earth was young, but the first person to give a precise date I I I.The Scientific Revolution a. Discovery of the New World, made rouse to the fact that the world could not be flat, but round. Also, their awareness of biological diversity was greatly expanded as they became aware of plants and animals they’d never seen before. b. Copernicus challenged Aristotle i. Aristotle taught that the Earth was the center of the universe. ii. Copernicus disproved this by saying the sun was the center of the universe. iii. The Church liked Aristotle’s idea because it confirmed how the Earth and its organisms were the “center” of God’s focus. c. However, Galileo Galilei restated Copernicus’ views in print, and he used logic and mathematics to back it up. i. Galileo was confronted by the Church and put under house arrest because of his theories....
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This note was uploaded on 02/26/2009 for the course ANTH 1001 taught by Professor Tague during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Anthropology Full Book Notes - Anthropology Full Book Notes...

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