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lect13 - Bio 1A Feb 20 2009 Lecture 13 Wilt Biosynthesis...

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Bio 1A. Feb. 20, 2009 Lecture 13. Wilt Biosynthesis and Organelle Construction I. Metabolism A. The sum of enzymatic reactions, arranged in "pathways" is metabolism. Some pathways are primarily involved in formation of ATP and NADH , called catabolism , while others are more involved in formation of the building blocks of the cell, called " anabolism ", though we shall use the term biosynthesis. B . All organelles and contents of the cells are made of macromolecules, composed of approximately 60 building blocks. Cellular reproduction means that the cell must double its contents of macromolecules, and hence of building blocks, for each generation. The materials and energy for this enterprise ultimately come from outside the cell. C. We can distinguish several levels that operate in biosynthesis: 1. Glucose forms C3-C6 compounds. We have already covered this in our study of glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle. 2. Those carbon skeletons are modified to form the 60 building blocks in some 500 enzymatic reactions. 3. Some building blocks are "stitched" together to make more elaborate building blocks. 4. Macromolecules are made from building blocks that are monomers. D. An overview is shown in the diagram below. ( Essential amino acids for humans are underlined .) Glycogen Glucose G-6-P ---- > 3 aromatic a.a., His , Ribose 5- P,nucleotide 3-P-Glycerate ----- > Ser,Gly,Cys PEP -------> Phe, Trp , Tyr Pyruvate ----- > Ala, Val, Leu Fatty acids < ----------Acetyl Co-A Citric Acid --------------------Oxalacetate Asp,Asn ( N ),Lys Met, Threo,Ileu ( N ) ( N ) ---------------------------------- α -ketoglutarate------ > Glu--- > Gln, Arg,Pro
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II. The second level: making amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides
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