Chapter 4B - Types of Aqueous solutions and solubility...

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Types of Aqueous solutions and solubility Solution: A homogeneous mixture of different substances Aqueous Solution Non-aqueous solution (Water is used as solvent) ( Solvent other than water ) water sugar Aqueous solution of sugar with water as solvent sugar as solute Dissolution is the process where one substance disperses into another at molecular or atomic level. The solid structure is broken and individual molecules or ions are dispersed . When ionic compounds are dissolved in water, each ion is surrounded by water molecules due to interactions between ions and water molecules. NaCl( s ) NaCl(aq) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) H 2 O Ions are said to be aquated or solvated; ( aq ) indicates dissolution in water (or aqueous solution )
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When polar molecular (covalent) compounds are dissolved in water, the molecules of compound stay intact (do not break up) but are surrounded by water molecules due to different type of interactions (dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding interactions) between solute and solvent. C 6 H 12 O 6 ( s ) C 6 H 12 O 6 ( aq ) H 2 O The molecular compound is said to be aquated or solvated . Example: NaCl(s) Na + ( aq ) + Cl - ( aq ) water sodium ions solvated by water molecules chloride ions solvated by water molecules O H H Na + O H H Cl - O H H Na + Cl - water Ion-ion interactions in solid NaCl are broken up in water and replaced by ion-water interactions The electron rich oxygen atom is attracted towards positively charged Na + ion and electron poor H atom is attracted towards negatively charged Cl - ion. sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar
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Electrolyte solutions (A solution that conducts electricity more than the solvent) Non- or weak electrolyte solutions: Addition of a substance to solvent does not increase, or only slightly increases, the conduction of electricity Solutions Strong electrolyte :If a compound, upon addition to solvent, dissociates completely into constituent ions then that substance is a strong electrolyte. Ionic compounds (made up of Group I and II elements) are strong electrolytes K 2 SO 4 (s) 2K + ( aq ) + SO 4 2- ( aq ) water Weak electrolytes : If a compound does not dissociate completely into ions then most of that compound exists in molecular form and partly in dissociated form. Non-electrolytes : Substances that do not form any ions in solution Example: sugar solution Covalent molecular compounds do not dissociate into ions in solution Note : All ionic compounds are not soluble in water ( Ex: AgCl ) and all water soluble compounds are not ionic!!
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Substances that dissociate to produce H + ions in solution are called Arrhenius acids . Strong acids are those where a majority of its molecules dissociate generating H + ions. Thus strong acids are also strong electrolytes. For example, HCl stays as
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2009 for the course CHEM 102a taught by Professor Hanusa during the Fall '06 term at Vanderbilt.

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Chapter 4B - Types of Aqueous solutions and solubility...

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