Exam 1 review biology

Exam 1 review biology - ♥ Taxonomy is the science of...

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Unformatted text preview: ♥ Taxonomy is the science of naming, identifying, and classifying organisms ♥ Systematics is the scientific study of the diversity of organisms and their evolutionary history ♥ A Taxon is a level in which organisms are grouped into ♥ Natural systems are based on evolutionary relationships ♥ Artificial systems are not based on evolutionary relationships (we started out as artificial) ♥ Carl Von Linne (artificial system basing animals on head properties) Darwin (emergence of phylogeny) → ♥ Phylogeny is the complete evolutionary history of an organism ♥ Linnaeus Taxonomic Levels (hierarchical) → : Kinky people come over for great sex ♠ Kingdom phylum class order genus specie → → → → → : Binomial Nomenclature ♠ Genus name (genera) + specific epithet CAPITAL lowercase ♥ Only the specie level has an attempt for an operational definition ♥ Biological species ( earnst mayr ) - a group of organisms whose members have the potential to interbreed with each other in nature to produce fertile offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members of other species : Sexual reproduction, not asexual ♥ Morphospecies : species defined based on their anatomical features : Morphology derives from genes interacting with the environment ♥ Monophyletic Taxon – members are based on homologous characters : Homologous characters are derived from a common ancestor but may serve a different purpose ♥ Polyphyletic Taxon – members are based on analogous characters : Analogous characters are similar characteristics derived from adaptations to similar environments, but have a different common ancestor ♠ Arose from convergent evolution ♥ A lineage is sequence regarding the way species changed through time giving rise to new characteristics. Animal Diversity Protista Animalia Amoebas Actinopods Foraminiferans Flagellates Ciliates Apicomplexans (subkingdom) Parazoa (subkingdom) Eumetazoa Porifera Bilateral Symmetry Radial Symmetry Spicule – mesohyll skeleton Amoeboid cell in mesohyl – secretes spicules (made of CaCO , ₃ silica, and spongin); digestion and food transport Hermaphrodites Choanocyte – beats flagella to draw water through spongocoel and exit it through the osculum Protostomes Deuterostomes Phylum Cnidaria Phylum Ctenophora Platyhelminthes Rotifer Nematoda Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Onycophora Echinodermata Chordata Prot ista Heterotrophs Polyphyletic Amoebas ♥ Pseudopodia – “ false feet” for feeding and moving Actinopods ♥ (radiolarians) – tests of silica ♥ Axopods – “ ray feet” (cytoplastic extensions) for feeding and floating : St iffened by m icrotubules and ejected from pores to tangle prey Foram iniferans ♥ (litt le hole bearers) – tests of calcium carbonate ♥ Pseudopodia – extended through pores for feeding : St icky pseudopodia ♥ “ chalk cliffs” Flagellates ♥ (whip bearers) ♥ Polyphyletic ♥ Contains enzymes to help term ites digest wood ♥ Flagellates are...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2009 for the course BIO 102 taught by Professor Brey during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Exam 1 review biology - ♥ Taxonomy is the science of...

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