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Unformatted text preview: Professor Kelemen Professor Kelemen Environmental Politics
Overview of major policies part 1. Early Conservation efforts Early Conservation efforts The Constitution? Teddy Roosevelt’s ‘Progressive Era’ Conservation Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal Conservationism From Conservation to environmentalism he who appropriates land to himself by his labour, does not lessen, but increase the common stock of mankind: for the provisions serving to the support of human life, produced by one acre of inclosed and cultivated land, are (to speak much within compass) ten times more than those which are yielded by an acre of land of an equal richness lying waste in common. And therefore he that incloses land, and has a greater plenty of the conveniencies of life from ten acres, than he could have from an hundred left to nature, may truly be said to give ninety acres to mankind: for his labour now supplies him with provisions out of ten acres, which were but the product of an hundred lying in common. I have here rated the improved land very low, in making its product but as ten to one, when it is much nearer an hundred to one: for I ask, whether in the wild woods and uncultivated waste of America, left to nature, without any improvement, tillage or husbandry, a thousand acres yield the needy and wretched inhabitants as many conveniencies of life, as ten acres of equally fertile land do in Devonshire, where they are well cultivated? John Locke, 2nd Treatise on John Locke, 2 Government, Chapter V, Sec. 37 The Frontier The Frontier Unlimited resources in ‘the West’/the Frontier By end of 19th Century ‘frontier’ had closed and damage caused by unregulated use becomes evident
Deforestation Rangeland overgrazed Species depleted (Buffalo and passenger pigeon) First national park established in 1872 (Yellowstone) Passenger Pigeon and Bison Passenger Pigeon and Bison Teddy Roosevelt Conservationist Teddy Roosevelt Conservationist
"There can be nothing in the world more beautiful than the Yosemite, the groves of the giant sequoias and redwoods, the Canyon of the Colorado, the Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Three Tetons; and our people should see to it that they are preserved for their children and their children's children forever, with their majestic beauty all unmarred." Roosevelt & John Muir in Yosemite Teddy Roosevelt’s Conservation Teddy Roosevelt’s Conservation efforts National Forest Service 1905 – headed by Pinchot Bird Reserves, 1906 Antiquities Act, 5 National Parks Set aside 230,000,000 acres Forest Service (with Gifford Pinchot) Key = federal government owns nearly one half of the land area in the eleven western states Early division between ‘preservation’ (Muir) and conservation (Pinchot) Eventually Forest service becomes ‘deforestation service’ cuts down over 85 percent of old growth forests …later Woodrow Wilson follows progressive tradition, establishes National Park Service Hetch Hetchy Hetch Hetchy Gifford Pinchot John Muir FDR and Conservation FDR and Conservation Civilian Conservation Corps (19331942) Soil Conservation Act (1935) From Conservation to Pollution From Conservation to Pollution Control Historically, pollution control had been seen as local issue. Mostly addressed through ‘common law’ principles such as ‘public nuisance’ and ‘negligence’ More state involvement and state laws concerning pollution from late 1940s50s Federal gov’t also gets involved (eg Water Pollution Control Act of 1948) Early Federal Involvement Early Federal Involvement Research and funding to assist state and local pollution control. California and New York = leaders on Cars and high sulfur fuels State laws block trade and create problem for feds Federal Air Quality Act (1967) E.g. Sewage Treatment Set up National Air Pollution Control Administration Required states to set standards and submit ‘implementation plans’ The early 1970s Policy Window in the US Dawn of the Environmental Dawn of the Environmental Movement Problem stream – awareness triggered by major events, scientific findings Policy Stream – ecologists, activists had been developing policy ideas Politics Stream – Partisan battle between Nixon administration and democratic congress (Ed Muskie in Senate) to win environmental voters (68 70 & 72 elections) IDEAS: RACHEL CARSON – SILENT SPRING (1964) Triggering Events: Santa Barbara Oil Spill (1969) Cuyahoga River Fire Cuyahoga River Fire (near Cleveland Ohio) 1969 Policy Entrepreneurs: Earth Day (April 22, 1970) Dennis Hayes (Stanford Student) Gaylord Nelson (Wisconsin Senator) General Measures NEPA Endangered Species Act Air Clean Air Act Amendments Water Clean Water Act Marine Protection Act Coastal Zone Management Act Safe Drinking Water Act Waste RCRA CERCLA and Sara (Superfund) Toxics/Pesticides FIFRA TSCA Major Environmental Laws Major Environmental Laws
1969 1973 1970, 1977, 1990 1972, 1977, 1987 1972 1972 1974, 1986, 1996 1976, 1984 1980, 1986 1972 1976 US international leadership US international leadership US not only passes domestic laws, it also plays leadership role in promoting international environmental protection US supports or takes lead on: 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm 1972 London Convention on Dumping at Sea 1972 World Heritage Convention 1973 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 1978 MARPOL Protocol on Pollution from Ships Institutional Reforms Institutional Reforms Nixon creates EPA in 1970 With NEPA (1969) increasing attention to environmental issues throughout federal government. Gradually state governments reform and expand state environmental protection agencies Legacies of the early 1970s Legacies of the early 1970s Ambitious statutes (bound to fail?) Delays in implementation Legal challenges Environmental policy gets firm institutional grounding Criticism of impact of enviro regulation on economy increases in late 1970s (clean air act) Reagan Backlash 1980s Backlash 1980s Backlash Public rejects Reagan agenda and Congress fights back after 1982 Government is not the solution to our problems. Government is the problem. Budget cuts to EPA (20% of staff, 1/3 of budget) Controversial appointments (Watt and Gorsuch) Regulatory oversight (Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, Taskfor on Regulatory Relief) Executive Order 12291 – Cost benefit analysis Anne Gorsuch - Found to be ‘in contempt of congress’ in 1983 for failing to turnover documents for Congressional investigation of ‘sweetheart deals’ for industry. Forced to resign with 20 other officials James Watt: Resigned after commenting on diversity of a committee in Dep’t of Interior stating: "I have a black, a woman, two Jews and a cripple, and we have talent!" Later took misdemeanor plea deal to avoid 18 felony charges re: influence peddling at Dep’t of Housing and Urban Development ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2009 for the course POLI 790350 taught by Professor Kelleman during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.
- Spring '09