Psych Test 1 Study Guide

Psych Test 1 Study Guide - Ch 1 Psychology the scientific...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ch. 1 Psychology : the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Arm-chair psychology : philosophers sitting around thinking about human nature, developing ideas about why they think humans behave the way that they do. Wundt: in 1879 created an experiment testing people’s reflexes. “psychology’s first experiment”. His student introduced structuralism : an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. James: psychologist-philosopher, was a functionalist functionalism: a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Areas of Specialization: Biological psych- influences of biology on psychology Evolutionary psych- how and why behaviors have evolved Social psych- interpersonal influences School psych- behavior/learning problems Developmental psych- influence of age Industrial psych- work setting Clinical psych- clinical psychology vs. psychiatrists Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic psychology- freud, unconscious, childhood Behavior psych- observable behavior, learning Humanistic psych- healthy people, potential for growth Cognitive psych- mental processes Nature v. Nurture: long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development o psychological traits and behaviors Nurture works on what nature endows Biopsychosocial Approach: an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social- cultural levels of analysis. It offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process. Critical Thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and asses conclusions. -examine how terms are defined; inspect the evidence; look for potential biases; watch for oversimplifications; consider alternative interpretations Scientific Method: ID research question: hypothesis theory, gather data, analyze data, draw conclusions, communicate results. Theory- an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behavior Hypothesis- a testable prediction, often implied by theory Operational definition- a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. Replication- repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in a different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Methods of Testing Hypotheses: Case study- observe 1 individual person’s situation Naturalistic observation- observe in a natural setting w/o manipulation Survey method- representative v. random sample v. volunteer bias +wording +accuracy of self-report Correlation research- measure of the extent at which 2 variables vary in relation to each other +reveals how variables are related to each other and the direction of relationship +DOES NOT IMPLY THAT 2 VARIABLES ARE RELATED
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern