Psych Test 1 Study Guide

Psych Test 1 Study Guide - Ch. 1 Psychology: the scientific...

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Ch. 1 Psychology : the scientific study of behavior and mental processes Arm-chair psychology : philosophers sitting around thinking about human nature, developing ideas about why they think humans behave the way that they do. Wundt: in 1879 created an experiment testing people’s reflexes. “psychology’s first experiment”. His student introduced structuralism : an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. James: psychologist-philosopher, was a functionalist functionalism: a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function- how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish Areas of Specialization: Biological psych- influences of biology on psychology Evolutionary psych- how and why behaviors have evolved Social psych- interpersonal influences School psych- behavior/learning problems Developmental psych- influence of age Industrial psych- work setting Clinical psych- clinical psychology vs. psychiatrists Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic psychology- freud, unconscious, childhood Behavior psych- observable behavior, learning Humanistic psych- healthy people, potential for growth Cognitive psych- mental processes Nature v. Nurture: long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development o psychological traits and behaviors Nurture works on what nature endows Biopsychosocial Approach: an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social- cultural levels of analysis. It offers a more complete picture of any given behavior or mental process. Critical Thinking: thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and asses conclusions. -examine how terms are defined; inspect the evidence; look for potential biases; watch for oversimplifications; consider alternative interpretations Scientific Method: ID research question: hypothesis theory, gather data, analyze data, draw conclusions, communicate results. Theory- an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behavior Hypothesis- a testable prediction, often implied by theory Operational definition- a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. Replication- repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in a different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances Methods of Testing Hypotheses: Case study- observe 1 individual person’s situation Naturalistic observation- observe in a natural setting w/o manipulation Survey method- representative v. random sample v. volunteer bias +wording +accuracy of self-report Correlation research- measure of the extent at which 2 variables vary in relation to each other +reveals how variables are related to each other and the direction of relationship +DOES NOT IMPLY THAT 2 VARIABLES ARE RELATED
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2009 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Wyland during the Spring '08 term at Tulane.

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Psych Test 1 Study Guide - Ch. 1 Psychology: the scientific...

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