[4]Kingdom Fungi

[4]Kingdom Fungi - Kingdom Fungi (Chapter 26) 1. Fungi...

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allomycetes Kingdom Fungi (Chapter 26) 1. Fungi contain membrane-enclosed nuclei, mitochondria and other membranous organelles. They are also described as eukaryotic heterotrophs with a difference; what is that? Cell walls contain chitin; what is chitin and how does it serve as a defense to the fungi? Fungi o Membrane-enclosed nuclei, mitochondria and other membranous organelles Eukaryotiuc heterotrophs Digestion is outside of the body Infiltrate food source, secrete digestive enzymes onto the food o Then absorbed predigested food o Cells walls with chitin (complex CHO) Resists to breakdown by most microorganisms 2. Fungi include members diverse as the unicellular yeast (simplest) to the filamentous, multicellular mold (complex); the filamentous mold is characterized by a hypha and a mycelium; what are these structures and their roles in the fungus? (Fig. 26-1, 26-2) Distinguish between monocharyotic, dikaryotic and coenocytic hyphae? Fungi Structures o Unicellular yeast (simplest) o Filaments, multicellular mold (complex) o Most unicellular fungi Have elongates, tread life filaments (hyphae) Branch and from a tnaled mass o Hyphae In most fungi Perforated septa (cross walls) divide it into individual cells with one nuclei (monolaryotic) and tow (dikaryotic) nuclei In some fungi Hyphae are ceonocytic (form one long elongated multinucleated cell, no speta) 3. Fungi reproduce bit sexually and asexually. What is a conidophore? What type of spores do these receptacles contain? (Fig. 26-3, 26-4) How do yeasts reproduce? Is it sexual or asexual? Fungal sexual and asexual life cycles have similar characteristic that can be recognized by haploid, dikaryotic and diploid stages. Distinguish between plasmogamy, karyogamy and final spore production during a sexual reproductive cycle? Life Cycle of Fungus o Reproduction Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually by spores (majority are non motile and dispersed by wind) Spores
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Produced in sporangia on aerial hyphae (or fruiting structures (the mushroom)) Land in suitable sport and germinate to form hyphae o Conidiophores is a specialized hyphae that produces asexual spores Asexual reproduction Produces fungi quickly and with little re-assortment (yeasts) Sexual reproduction Meiosis ad generates new genotypes o Hyphae of two genetically compatible mating types inte (facilitates by pheromones) Cytoplasm fuses (plasmogamy) Haploid nuclei (one from each fungus mating type) remain separate Cells foes through mitosis to produce other cells that now have two nuclei (dikaryotic (n+n)) At some point the fusion of the two haploid nucleus occurs o Takes place in hyphal tip o Results in diplchytrids o diploid (2n) or zygote nucleus 4. The opisthokonts include three kingdoms; one of which is the fungi – name the other 2? Fungi are more closely related to animal than plants; what two distinguishing characteristics support this. 5.
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2009 for the course BIOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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[4]Kingdom Fungi - Kingdom Fungi (Chapter 26) 1. Fungi...

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