[8]Plant Structure, Growth, and Differntiation

[8]Plant Structure, Growth, and Differntiation - PLANT...

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PLANT STRUCTURE, GROWTH, AND DIFFERENTIATION (CHAPTER 32) [1] Flowering plants are the most successful and diversified members of the plant kingdom. 90% of plants are flowering vascular and characterized by flowers, double fertilization, endosperm, cotyledons and seeds enclosed within fruits (Table 28-2) o Most successful and most diverse of the plant kingdom (two main classes: monocots and eudicots) Flowering plants are either herbaceous or wood. Which has aerial parts that die back each year, and which produces lignified tissues and aerial parts that persist longer than a year? o What is the difference? Monocots o Class includes: palms grasses o Most have floral parts in threes o Leaf veation Is parallel o Secondary growth is absent o Seeds contain 1 cotyledon and endosperm o Scattered vascular bundles Eudicots (Class eudicotyledons) o Class includes oaks, roses, cacti o Leaf ventilation is netted o Gymnosperms and woody eudicots have secondary growth o Usually have floral parts in fours or fives Or multiples thereof o Seeds each contain 2 cotyledons Endosperm is absent, nutrition in cotyledons at germination o Taproot system o Vascular system in a ring Flowering Plants o Herbaceous (non-woody) In temperate climates aerial (stems and leaves) parts dies back at the end of the season o Woody In temperate climates, aerial parts persist via hard lignified secondary tissues [3] Herbaceous plants that grow, reproduce, and die in 1 year or less are called annuals. Examples include geraniums, marigolds and corn, Biennials are herbaceous plants that take 2 years to complete life cycles, and then die. What happens in those first and second years in terms of their life cycles? Give examples of some biennials. Annuals o Herbaceous plant that grow reproduces and dies in 1 year or less o Such as corn gerniom marigold Biennials o Take up 12 years to complete life cycle Produce CHO in first year Produce flowers and reproduces in 2 nd year o Carrot
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[4] Perennials are both herbaceous and woody plants and have the potential to live for more than 2 years. Distinguish between an herbaceous and woody perennial in both structure and growth cycle. Which of these has parts that lie dormant in the winter in preparation for new growth in the spring? Define deciduous and evergreen woody perennials. Perennials o Herbaceous and woody Have potential to live more than 2 years o Herbaceous perennials In temperate and tropical climates some aerial stems die back each year Dormancy of underground parts in winter for new growth in spring Others grow all the year around (e.g.: Orchid) o Woody perennials Deciduous – shed leaves in winter, new in spring Evergreen – shed leaves very slowly (or not) Permanent woody stems [5] Long lived trees thrive in tropical rain forests while small short lived plants thrive in relatively unfavorable environments. Why is this? Life history strategy
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[8]Plant Structure, Growth, and Differntiation - PLANT...

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