Biological Molecules

Biological Molecules - Biological Molecules I. Properties...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biological Molecules I. Properties of Hydrocarbons -Hydrocarbons -carbon + hydrogen only! -nonpolar -hydrophobic What properties of carbon make it so well-suited to serve as the central component of organic compounds? Carbon Atoms -Form 4 covalent bonds -single, double, triple -straight or branched chains -rings -bond strength is “just right” Are hydrocarbons hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Why? -hydrophobic because it is non-charged and not polar Draw the structural formulas of methane and ethane. What are some of the shapes that hydrocarbons can have? II. Functional Groups What are the properties of each of the following functional groups: hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, carboxyl group, amino group, phosphate group, sulfhydryl group, and methyl group? Why do they have these properties? Hydroxyl Group -Polar because electronegative oxygen attracts to covalent electrons Carboxyl Group -non-ionized and ionized R—COOH R—COO - HOOC—R - OOC—R Amino -weakly basic -can accept H + Phosphate Weakly acidic -one or two H + can be released -non-ionized and ionized Sulfyhydry -helps stabilize internal structure of proteins
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
-R—SH Monomers linked by condensation reactions Polymers broken down y hydrolysis reaction Figure 3-5 pg 50 III. Main classes of biological Molecules A. Carbohydrates (sugars, starches, cellulose) -CH 2 O (Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen) -Carbohydrate meaning “hydrate of carbon” reflects the 2:1 ration of hydrogen to oxygen, the same ratio found in water. What functional groups are found in every carbohydrate? -Carbonyl and hydroxyl groups 1. Monosaccharide (Single sugar) (Simple Sugar) -A hydroxyl group is bonded to each carbon atom except one; that cabon atom forming a carbonyl group. What is the difference between an adlehyde sugar and a ketone sugar? -If the carbonyl group is at the end of the chain, the monosaccharide is an aldehyde; if the carbonyl group is at any other position, the monosaccharide is a ketone. Are sugars hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Why? Hydrophilic because of the hydroxyl group What happens when a monosaccharide undergoes a rearrangement to form a ring structure? Can a ring form in more than one way? -When a monosaccharide undergoes a rearrangement to form a ring structure, permitting a covalent bond to connect carbon 1 to the oxygen attached to carbon 5. When glucose forms a ring, two isometric forms are possible, differing only in orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 1. -When the hydroxyl group is on the same side of the plane of the ring as the —CH 2 OH side group, the glucose is designated beta glucose ( -glucose) β -When it is on the side opposite the —CH 2 OH, the compound is designated alpha glucose ( -glucose). α 2. Disaccharides What is condensation synthesis ? -A reaction in which two monomers are combined covalently through
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 02/28/2009 for the course BIOLOGY 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

Page1 / 8

Biological Molecules - Biological Molecules I. Properties...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online