Cellular Organization

Cellular Organization - Cellular Organization I Biological...

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Cellular Organization I. Biological Organization What is the hierarchy of life in terms of cells, organ systems, organisms, tissues, organs, chemicals, and subcellular organelles? Chemicals Subcellular Organelles Cells Tissues Organs Organisms Organ Systems II. Cellular Metabolism How do anabolism and catabolism contribute to metabolism ? -Every organism has a metabolism which is the sum of all chemical activities of the organism. -Anabolism is making up and catabolism is breaking down. What are the roles of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances in living things? -Hydrophilic “water loving” and Hydrophobic are “water-fearing”. -Water is an excellent solvent especially polar and ionic compound. Hydrophilic are easily dissolved in water which plays an important role in facilitating chemical reactions. -Hydrophobic have the ability to form associations or structures that are not disrupted or dissolved or disrupted by water. Why are minerals important? -Minerals: Inorganic nutrients ingested as salts dissolved in food and water. It is the bases for interaction. Hemoglobin – carries oxygen; protein no ionic (iron). What is the importance if carbohydrates , lipids , proteins (especially enzymes ) and nucleic acids ? -Carbohydrates (Hydrophilic): Sugar, starches and cellulose. Sugars and starches serve as energy sources for cells; cellulose is the main structural component of the walls that surround plant cells. (CH 2 O)
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-Lipids (most are hydrophobic): fats, phospholipids, carotenoids, steroids and waxes. Some lipids are used for energy storage, others serve as structural component os cellular membranes, and some are important hormones. -Proteins (Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic): macromolecules composed of amino acids.Most genetic informations are used to specify the structure of proteins. Proteins are involved in virtually all aspects of metabolism because most enzymes (molecules that accelerate the thousands of different chemical reactions that take place in an organism) are proteins. -Nucleic Acids: (DNA and RNA) hereditary information and determine what proteins a cell manufactures. III. Cellular Function What is the evolutionary significance of the Cell Theory ? 1. Cells are basic units of organization and function in all living organisms 2. All cells come from pre-existing cells 3. All living things have evolved from a common ancestor Are Viruses cellular? Is it alive? NO IV. Plasma Membrane Is every cell enclosed by a plasma membrane? Why? -Yes, because to maintain homeostasis, the contents of the cell mist be separated from the external environment. If it is not, then it is not a living organism. The plasma membrane allows the chemical composition of the cell to be quite different from the outside cell. Does every cell have a cell wall?
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Cellular Organization - Cellular Organization I Biological...

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