Hist 4022

Hist 4022 - I The Course of French History a France was...

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I. The Course of French History a. France was divided into urban and rural i. 2000 + was considered urban and 20% of France was urban b. Not many people lived in large areas c. Life was tough, especially for those living in rural areas d. People were remarkably backwards, even in the 1840s e. Peasants (small farmers) i. Life for them was hard ii. Some owned land, but this was rare iii. Some owned enough land to retire, which was rarer iv. Sharecropping was common and most peasants were sharecroppers 1. Land owners would get 60% of the harvest and first pick v. They lived on the edge; a bad year could push them over the edge vi. They were 80% of the population vii. They owned 50% of the land in France, but it was not always good land and surely not enough to live on viii. They lived in houses usually shared with animals ix. They did not bathe regularly x. Their clothes were woven out of wool, which was hard to wash, so their clothes were rarely washed xi. Their diet was mainly grain and bread 1. Sometimes the bread was so hard it had to be soaked to soften it 2. Meat was a rare commodity 3. Because of their poor diet, they were usually constipated xii. They were usually covered in bugs xiii. They worked dawn to dusk xiv. Most of them could not read or write 1. 4/10 adult male peasants could write his name and 1/10 female peasants could write her name a. This does not mean they could read 2. Books was expensive and hard to get a hold of, so even the ones that could read did not read much xv. What did they know? 1. They knew how to survive 2. They also knew that the Church was their to mark momentous events in their lives xvi. Church 1. The Church was there to regulate the Rites of Passage a. Baptism (when you’re born) b. Confirmation (when you come of age) c. Marriage (when you marry) d. Burial (when you die) 2. The Church was a mystery to peasants 3. Thunderstorms ruined crops and they usually came near the end of harvest so peasants feared them because they could ruin their harvest a. It was common to ring a bell to wake up God when it rained so that He would send it away b. If it still rained, they could not blame God, so the bells were publicly whipped for not waking up God c. This was practiced up to the 1840s f. Urban areas
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i. They were bigger towns and they had walls for security ii. However, the closing up of these towns increased the spread of diseases in town so many people died iii. The average lifespan of a man was 40 and of a woman was 35 iv. Tuberculosis was the main cause of death v. People died most commonly of infectious diseases and didn’t live long enough to get cancer, heart disease, etc vi. Half of all children died before 5 and so parents did not get too attached vii. People died faster in towns viii. The lowest ranking people in the towns carried out agricultural tasks g. Artisans (craftsmen) i. They made something with their hands ii. They were organized in the gild system iii. Parents would often send their sons (rarely daughters) to live with a craftsman and he
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Hist 4022 - I The Course of French History a France was...

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