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SOC 101 - Final Review

SOC 101 - Final Review - Author Work Davis and Moore"Some...

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Author/ Work Main Ideas Davis and Moore Functionalist perspective on social stratification "Some Principles of Stratification" 5 Propositions: 1) Certain positions in any society are functionally more important than other 2) Only a limited number of individuals have the talents that can be trained into the skills ne those positions 3) The conversion of talents into skills requires sacrifices during period of training (e.g. opp costs, deferred gratification, etc.) 4)To induce talented individuals to undergo training, future postions must offer differential r including income, prestige, autonomy, and power… 5) Therefore, social inequality is both positively functional and inevitable in any society 5 Critiques of Davis and Moore: 1) Circular Reasoning - who has the power to define "functional importance"? 2) Who gets to harness talents determined by resources of parents -- Elites restrice access 3) Costs of training often borne by parents Differential pay over lifetime far exceeds direct and indirect costs 4) Are exrinsic rewards necessary? 5) Social stratification may actually limit discovery of full range of talent and thereby limit pr Social stratification may weaken social cohesion by making some members of society feel Laureau, Annette About class differences in their orientation towards child-rearing "Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing…" 1. cultivates talents, opinions, skills, and cultural style 2. kids spend more time in structured, adult-directed activities with same-age peers 1. emphasizes a safe environment, loved, and letting children grow on their own 2. less structured time, more contact with extended family and mixed-age peers 3. Directives and disciplines Consequences: Concerted Cultivation - middle class approach Natural Growth - lower class approach
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1. Different approaches lead to transmission of differential advantages: a. middle class children are more assertive w/ authority figures while working class are less challenge authority 2. Sense of Entitlement vs. Sense of Constraint 3. Frenetic pace for middle class parents and kids Stevens, Mitchell The main idea is that individualized consideration of college applications creates a peculiar Creating a Class: class bias in selective college admissions College Admissions and the Creation of Elites 3 Steps in Creating a Class 1. Reading and Rating 2. Storytelling 3. Class Crafting Individualization favors those who are able to deliver raw materials evaluators need to tell c stories -- tends to be socioeconomically privileged applicants who have access to resource better guidance counselors or parents who can provide monetary donations to the school Centeno, Miguel Angel Out of the Shadows: "The Disciplinary Society in Latin America" Informal economy will occur wherever it can Order leads to disorder -- Latin America tried to impose too many laws that they couldn't en "The Informal Economy in the Shadow of the State" Pros of the Informal Economy: 1. Produced goods "Making the Nation" 2. Gave people income 3. Allowed people to live with a better quality of life
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SOC 101 - Final Review - Author Work Davis and Moore"Some...

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