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American+Army+in - The American Army in World War I 1917-18 US Army 1915 100,000 American Army in WWI 3,500,000 US Army 1920s 140,000 Size and

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The American Army in World War I, 1917-18. US Army 1915 100,000; American Army in WWI 3,500,000; US Army 1920s 140,000 Size and Recruitment : American Army in World War I: 3.5 million soldiers (khaki uniforms – earth colored—resulted in the WWI American soldiers being called “doughboys.”) Majority of junior officers came from college graduates via Officers Candidate Schools (90-day OCS training). Most senior officers from the regular army. Included volunteers : 175,000 in Regular Army; nearly 400,000 in National Guard. But 3 million men were draftees (70% of wartime army). The U.S. Volunteers of 19 th century was ended and replaced by a drafted wartime National Army. Selective Draft Act of 1917 required all males, 18-45, to register and be subject to conscription for duration of the war. A system of civilian Local Draft Boards decided which individuals would be drafted and which deferred, within guidelines and quotas set in Washington by the Congress and the national headquarters of Selective Service, which was run by military officers. (Men could be exempted for physical or mental reasons and deferred for jobs crucial to the war effort or for family hardships.) This proved to be the model used in WWII, the Cold War, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War, until it lost public support and induction was ended in1973.) Despite divisions over the war, there were no anti-draft riots as in the Civil War. The government repressed dissent, arresting even the Socialist candidate for president, Eugene Debs, for speaking out against the draft. Opposition mainly took the form of draft evasion or registration as conscientious objectors (COs). Law recognized only historic pacifist faiths. Some 57,000 sought CO status and 4,000 were drafted into the army to serve in weaponless branches such as Medical Corps. But 500 “absolutists” refused and were sent to military prisons were some were brutally
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This note was uploaded on 02/28/2009 for the course ECON 322 taught by Professor Francisco during the Spring '07 term at Rutgers.

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American+Army+in - The American Army in World War I 1917-18 US Army 1915 100,000 American Army in WWI 3,500,000 US Army 1920s 140,000 Size and

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