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Handout 10 (for student)

Handout 10 (for student) - Duyen-Anh Pham BICD 100...

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Duyen-Anh Pham Handout 10 BICD 100 [email protected] I. Bacteria: Bacteria are haploid organisms. Most bacteria contain a single, circular dsDNA chromosome and may also contain additional molecules of DNA called . Bacteria are asexual organisms that are identical to their parent (i.e. producing exact genetic clones). Bacteria do not undergo meiosis and do not produce gametes. Since bacteria do not produce sexually, how can genetic variation occur in bacteria by 2 ways? How does mutation affect bacterial cell phenotype? There are 3 main ways by which genetic exchange/ recombination can occur in bacteria. All 3 mechanisms are examples of horizontal gene transfer. Genetic exchange also occurs by vertical gene transfer II. Conjugation The F factor (fertility factor) is a plasmid that contains several genes, including genes that encode the information necessary for production of the pilus. Conjugation requires direct contact between the donor cell and the recipient cell. A specific site on the F factor called the is cleaved (or nicked) to form 2 single strands. One of the single strands enters the recipient cell, and is later replicated. The recipient cell is thus converted into an F
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