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Revolution - Consequences and Responses Responses Ottoman...

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Unformatted text preview: Consequences and Responses Responses Ottoman Constitution 1876 Ottoman Midhat Pasha Leader of Constitionists Young Ottomans demand Constitution • • • • Government inadequate Ottomans are civilized Shura precedent Sultan Abdulhamid II 1876 Abdul Hamid II Shi’a/Shi’ites Shi’a/Shi’ites •Question of Succession: Ali •Caliph 656­661 •Husayn 680 •Karbala, Ashura •Imams •Muhammad al­Mahdi, 874 •Fluidity until the Safavis Legitimate Rule? Legitimate Safavi Shaykh Emerging notion of mujtahid Marja­i Taqlid: Source of Emulation Ayatollah: eye of God Nasir al­Din Shah 1848­1896 Clergy independent (compare to Ottomans) • Ijtihad: reasoning Iran and Europe Iran Modernizing: needs funding Concessions: selling patrimony Balancing England and Russia 1891: Tobacco Protest Mass protests: merchants and mujtahids (fatwa) • British company gets exclusive right to produce, sell, export tobacco Concessions Concessions New Shah, Muzzafir al­Din (1896­1906) William D’Arcy: Petroleum Concession British, French, Russian loans Favored trading status hurts small merchants • Iran gets 16% of all profits Revolution 1906 Revolution file:///D:/History77A/iranparliament_files/01_first_majles.jpg 1905: Sugar Merchants Bast Shah creates Constituent Assembly Constituent Assembly October 1906 creates Fundamental Law CounterCounterRevolution New Shah: Muhammad Ali Shah August 1907 Britain and Russia agree to divide Iran Inflation, increasing foreign presence: Constitution doesn’t work? Cossack Brigade closes Majlis, Qajars regain Tehran Civil war Foreign occupation until World War I Young Turks Young Committee of Union and Progress 1908 Abdul Hamid II: From Ottomanism to pan­Islam, caliphate Despite censorship, Resistance grows Demand Abdul Hamid II comply with Constitution Officers in Salonika lead revolt Elections 1912 • Hijaz Railway 1908 • German influence: Berlin to Bagdad Railroad • Kaiser Wilhelm 1889, 1898 ...
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