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Unformatted text preview: ilure, economic dislocation, a sense of malaise? Salafis Islamic Modernists Secularists Muhammad Ali Muhammad Governed Egypt 18051849 Goal: Independence Need reforms Modernize military Consequences? Muhammad Ali vs. Sultan Mahmud II, Ottoman Sultan, emulates vassal (ends Janissaries) Centralization (roads, postal service, administration) Education Westernization (fez) 1831 Muhammad Ali took Syria, 1833 150 miles from Istanbul (Agreement with Russia) 1839 Agreement with England Mahmud II dies, replaced by Abd alMecid Tanzimat: Reordering Tanzimat: Mahmud II: Auspicious Event 1826 Modernization Centralization Commercial Treaty 1838
• Capitulations history • Abolish monopolies • 12% exports...
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- Spring '08